Federal Depository Library Manual

Revised November 1993

Library Programs Service
Superintendent of Documents
U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, DC 20401

. Staff Review Log

The documents coordinator and all staff who work with depository operations should review this publication semiannually. New depository staff, especially, should thoroughly review this publication before beginning depository work.

Date reviewed

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements iv

Introduction v

Chapter 1 Library Programs Service 1
Chapter 2 Collection Development 7
Chapter 3 Maps 23
Chapter 4 Electronic Publications 35
Chapter 5 Bibliographic Control 57
Chapter 6 Maintenance 97
Chapter 7 Depository Promotion 109
Chapter 8 Inspections 115

Appendix A Suggested Core Collection [Now on a separate Web page] 123

Appendix B Maps Available for Selection 157

Appendix C Guidelines for the Federal Depository Library Program

[Now Supplement 2 of the Federal Depository Library Manual],
with Minimum Standards for the Depository Library System and Basic Collection 163

Index 175



For the last three years, many individuals have worked to produce this revision of the Federal Depository Library Manual. The editorial team is indebted to numerous practicing librarians and documents support staff members who have been particularly generous with their time and expertise. Their insights and excellent contributions were indispensable to production

.of this second edition. The Library of Michigan and its staff are particularly acknowledged for many resources, technical assistance and word processing contributions. Special thanks are extended to Margaret S. Powell for her expert editorial skills, not only for this edition but for the first edition as well.


Editorial Team

Ridley R. Kessler, Jr.
Margaret S. Powell

Section Revisors

Duncan Aldrich
George Barnum
Myrtle S. Bolner
Gary Cornwell
Sarah Holterhoff
Barbara Hulyk
Patricia C. Inouye
.Margaret Jackson
Elizabeth A. McBride
Gail Nichols
Thomas Petersen
Margaret S. Powell
Carol Singer
Susan Tulis

. Production Staff
The Library of Michigan

Amy Cremer
Donna Holdridge
Patricia Kingaby


Government Printing Office

Margaret Boeringer
Michael A. Clark
Robin Haun-Mohamed
Marian W. MacGilvray
Sheila M. McGarr
Joseph Paskoski

[ Back to the Table of Contents ]


The 1985 edition of the Federal Depository Library Manual was intended to be a practical guide, providing workable solutions for day-to-day challenges in nearly 1400 depository libraries. It served to supplement both the official Instructions to Depository Libraries and the Guidelines for the Federal Depository Library Program.

Those librarians who found the first Manual helpful have urged the preparation of a revised and updated second edition. As with the first edition, another purpose of this Manual is to provide guidance to new documents librarians and staff members unfamiliar with the Federal Depository Library Program. In no way, however, is the Manual intended to prescribe methods of operation. Suggestions and recommendations described in the following chapters can and should be adapted to individual needs in each library.

Several parts of the Manual had undergone revision since 1985 and were only slightly revised for this edition. The discussion of microfiche was based largely on information contained previously in the Instructions. While material on the Library Programs Service and documents bibliography has been considerably updated, discussions of collection development, technical processing, and helpful documents organizations have been completely revised. The Suggested Core Collections for academic, law and public libraries were subjected to a zero-based review and are current as of June 1993.

.Two chapters, "Maintenance" and "Electronic Publications," are new to the 1993 edition. One details ways to preserve the past and the other looks at ways to embrace the future. The chapter on maintenance summarizes information presented at workshops conducted at annual meetings of the American Library Association and at Regional Library Seminars during the last three years. Preservation techniques are suggested for paper and microfiche and a listing of considerations for identifying valuable and rare documents is included.

Within the past three years information in various electronic formats has been offered to depository libraries by the Government Printing Office. Because materials on CD-ROM or from electronic bulletin boards and online databases are in their infancy in the program, many policies and procedures are still being developed at this printing. The "Electronic Publications" chapter is a first step in providing guidance for acquiring, handling and offering access to these new products and services. This chapter will, undoubtedly, require revision again in the near future.

Obviously the Manual can never be considered finished, but must frequently be amended, revised and updated. Suggestions for improvements or additions are encouraged and should be directed to:

Chief, Depository Services
Library Programs Service (SLLD)
U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20401

F. Anne Diamond, Chief Editor
Government Information Specialist
Library of Michigan

[ Back to the Table of Contents ]

Chapter 1
Library Programs Service

Section 1. LPS Organizational Structure and Areas of Responsibility

A. Library Division

1. Depository Services Staff
2. Cataloging Branch
3. Depository Administration Branch

B. Depository Distribution Division

1. Depository Processing Branch
2. Depository Mailing Branch

Section 2. How and When to Contact the Library Programs Service .

Chapter 1 Library Programs Service

The Library Programs Service (LPS) is one of four organizations under the direction of the Superintendent of Documents. Its statutory authority derives from Title 44 of the United States Code (USC), Chapters 17 and 19, which describe the Cataloging and Indexing Program, the International Exchange Service Program and the Federal Depository Library Program.

The Cataloging and Indexing Program (44 USC 1710-1711) provides for bibliographic control of Government documents.


The International Exchange Service Program (44 USC 1719) allows for the official exchange of public documents between the United States and foreign governments. LPS administers the distribution component of this program for the Library of Congress.

The Federal Depository Library Program (44 USC 19) provides for the establishment and maintenance of depository libraries and the distribution of Government documents to those libraries for use by the public.

Administration of these programs involves tasks in six major functional areas which are reflected in the organizational structure of LPS: acquisitions, classification, format conversion, cataloging, distribution, and inspections.


Section 1 LPS Organizational Structure and Areas of Responsibility

LPS is comprised of two major organizational components: the Library Division and the Depository Distribution Division. Each division has its own area of responsibility as explained below.

The Director manages LPS and serves as the principal advisor to the Superintendent of Documents on program-related matters.

A. Library Division

The Library Division consists of three organizational subdivisions: the Depository Services Staff, the Cataloging Branch, and the Depository Administration Branch. The Chief of the Library Division manages these areas and advises the Director of LPS on program-related matters.

1. Depository Services Staff

The Depository Services Staff (DSS) is responsible for areas that relate to the functioning of the Federal depository library system. While other units of LPS are primarily oriented toward the processing and distribution of publications, the focus of the DSS is on the functioning of the individual libraries and their relation with each other and with GPO.

DSS administers the designation and termination of depository libraries and changes of status of existing depositories. A primary responsibility of DSS is to monitor the condition of depository libraries, which is accomplished through periodic inspection visits and a Biennial Survey of the depositories. Information gathered from these efforts is contained in the PAMALA (Profile Administration Management and Library Analysis) series of databases maintained by DSS.

DSS responsibilities also include the publications of the Federal Depository Library Program, e.g., Federal Depository Library Manual, Superseded List, Instructions to Depository Libraries, Administrative Notes, etc.; continuing education efforts for documents librarians (workshops, seminars and meetings); and liaison activities between regional depository libraries and GPO.

2. Cataloging Branch

The Cataloging Branch serves as the national authority for cataloging and bibliographic control of U.S. Government publications. The Cataloging Branch catalogs Government publications received at GPO, according to the Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, second edition, 1988 revision (AACR II), and administers the automated database of the cataloging records. The Cataloging Branch is also responsible for directing the production and printing of the Monthly Catalog of United States Government Publications as well as production of the machine-readable GPO cataloging data on tape, which is available from the Library of Congress, Cataloging Distribution Service. The Cataloging Branch also produces the U.S. Congressional Serial Set Catalog.

3. Depository Administration Branch

The Depository Administration Branch (DAB) responsibilities include acquisition of Government documents in all formats, assignment of Superintendent of Documents (SuDocs) classification numbers, procurement of depository library microfiche, preparation of shipping lists, and maintenance of the Depository Distribution Information System (DDIS) profiles of the depository libraries and the Acquisition, Classification, and Shipment Information System (ACSIS). DAB also acts as the documents distribution agent to the foreign libraries in the International Exchange Service Program, on behalf of the Library of Congress.

DAB staff handle the acquisition of Government documents; determine the format of publications distributed to depository libraries (i.e. paper, microfiche, or electronic media), inspect LPS-produced microfiche for quality; assign SuDocs classification numbers and item numbers; prepare shipping lists, surveys, and item selection updates.

DAB staff also compile and publish the List of Classes, Inactive or Discontinued Items from the 1950 Revision of the Classified List, the GPO Classification Manual, An Explanation of the Superintendent of Documents Classification System, and the Union List of Item Selections available in microfiche, and are responsible for the production of the Cumulative Finding Aid for Congressional Bills and Resolutions. In addition, DAB staff respond to numerous inquiries from depository libraries on all issues under their purview.

B. Depository Distribution Division

The Depository Distribution Division performs all functions relating to the receipt at GPO and the shipping to depository libraries of U.S. Government publications.

The Chief of the Depository Distribution Division directs all functions relating to receipt, storage, allotment, and preparation for shipment of publications distributed to depository libraries. These activities include initial preparation of material to be distributed to depositories, shipping of the material, and supplying material claimed as unreceived by the depository libraries. There are two branches within the Depository Distribution Division: the Depository Processing Branch and the Depository Mailing Branch.

1. Depository Processing Branch

The Depository Processing Branch prepares and distributes Government publications, shipping lists, and other information to depository libraries. It also gathers and collates publications of the same series or item number, and coordinates contractor mailings of separate titles to depository libraries.

2. Depository Mailing Branch

The Depository Mailing Branch performs all tasks relating to distribution of publications to depository libraries, including packaging, wrapping, metering, and mailing. The Branch also maintains a supply of shipping labels for depository libraries and prepares address labels for items mailed in separate shipments. The Depository Mailing Branch also operates the "lighted bin system" which automatically allocates depository publications to selecting libraries via a tape derived from DDIS. Finally, the Depository Mailing Branch fills hardcopy, electronic, and microfiche document claims.

Section 2 - How and When to Contact the Library Programs Service

Depository libraries are required to submit their inquiries on a Depository Library Inquiry Form, GPO Form 3794 (see Exhibit J of the Instructions to Depository Libraries) via mail or fax.

The Depository Library Inquiry Form greatly facilitates LPS' ability to respond to the majority of questions submitted. Additional copies of the Depository Library Inquiry Form can be obtained by writing to:

U.S. Government Printing Office
Library Programs Service (SLLA)
Washington, DC 20401

Some problems or questions are not suitable for the Depository Library Inquiry Form and should be handled differently:

1) Certain questions or services (e.g. obtaining copies of missing shipping lists) are best handled at the local or regional level. Depository libraries should contact a local or regional depository library if available, instead of contacting LPS.

2) Complex problems should be addressed to the specific unit within LPS that deals with that area of responsibility. Correspondence directed to LPS should always include the depository library number, business phone number, fax number if available, and best time to call.

Contact points within LPS for specific areas of responsibility are listed below:

Library Programs Service policy

Library Programs Service (SL)
U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, DC 20401
(202) 512-1114
Fax: (202) 512-1432

Federal Bulletin Board

(202) 512-1397
Sysop: (202) 512-1126

Acquisitions, all formats
Automatic/Direct mail
Inquiry forms

Acquisitions and Inquiry Group
Library Programs Service (SLLA)
U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, DC 20401
(202) 512-1063
Fax: (202) 512-1636

Administrative Notes
Biennial Survey
Depository and regional depository responsibilities
Depository designations or operations
Federal Depository Library Manual
Instructions to Depository Libraries
Superseded List

Chief, Depository Services
Library Programs Service (SLLD)
U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, DC 20401
(202) 512-1119
Fax: (202) 512-1432


Micrographics Control Section
Library Programs Service (SLLA)
U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, DC 20401
(202) 512-1060
Fax: (202) 512-1636

GPO cataloging policy
Monthly Catalog
GPO Cataloging Guidelines
GPO cataloging tapes
U.S. Congressional Serial Set Catalog

Chief, Cataloging Branch
Library Programs Service (SLLC)
U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, DC 20401
(202) 512-1121
Fax: (202) 512-1432

An Explanation of the Superintendent of Documents Classification System
GPO Classification Manual

Shipment Control and Administration Group
Library Programs Service (SLLA)
U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, DC 20401
(202) 512-1063
Fax: (202) 512-1636

Inactive List
Item surveys
Item selection update
List of Classes
Shipping lists

Shipment Control and Administration Group
Library Programs Service (SLLA)
U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, DC 20401
(202) 512-1153
Fax: (202) 512-1636


The library must follow the claiming procedure outlined in Chapter 3 of the Instructions to Depository Libraries and in Administrative Notes. If the library does not receive a claim response within four weeks, then the librarian may inquire about the claim by submitting the Depository Library Inquiry Form. (Do not submit a second claim.)

Claims may be submitted by fax at (202) 512-1429.

Unusual claim problems (any format)

Chief, Depository Mailing Branch
Library Programs Service (SLDM)
U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, DC 20401
(202) 512-1007
Fax: (202) 512-1429

Chronic distribution problems
Missing or delayed shipments

Chief, Depository Distribution Division
Library Programs Service (SLD)
U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, DC 20401
(202) 512-1014
Fax: (202) 512-1429


[ Back to the Table of Contents ]


Chapter 2
Collection Development

Section 1. Developing a Policy Statement

A. Depository Responsibilities

1. Understanding User Needs
2. Availability of Other Resources
3. Local Considerations
B. Writing the Policy Statement
1. Agencies and Subjects
2. Format
3. Non-Depository Materials
4. Accessibility
5. Location
6. Referral and Use of Other Resources
7. Disposal of Government Publications
8. Evaluation
9. Sources for More Information

Section 2. Selective Housing of Documents

A. Responsibilities and Requirements

1. Record Keeping
2. Access
3. Selection
4. Discard

B. Selective Housing Agreement

Section 3. Suggested Core Collections

A. Small/Medium Public Library

B. Small/Medium Academic Library

C. Law Library


Chapter 2 Collection Development

Developing documents collections is one of the most important responsibilities of depository librarians. Guidance in this area can be found in Chapter 2 of the Instructions to Depository Libraries and in the Guidelines for the Depository Library System (Appendix C of this Manual). In these documents you will find:

1) The basic list of titles which ought to be available in all depositories;

2) The requirement that each depository acquire essential Government and privately published catalogs and indexes, both retrospective and current;

3) The obligation to select useful materials appropriate to the objectives of your library and to the needs of the larger community and Congressional district that you serve; as well as

4) the requirement that you coordinate your selections with other depositories to insure adequate availability of Government information in your area.

At one time Section 4-5 of the Guidelines specified: "Selection of at least 25% of the available item numbers on the Classified List is suggested as the minimum number necessary to undertake the role of a depository library." In 1987, at the recommendation of the Depository Library Council, this section was substantially revised. The section now reads: "Depository libraries, either solely or in conjunction with neighboring depositories, should make demonstrable efforts to identify and meet the Government information needs of the local area." One way for depositories to make a "demonstrable effort" is through the "formulation and implementation of a written depository collection development policy" ( Instructions to Depository Libraries, p. 4).

.Section 1

Developing a Policy Statement

With over 7,000 depository items available for selection, a clear policy statement provides needed guidance in making individual decisions and requires a depository to think through what has been collected, what should be collected, in what depth, and why. Newly designated depositories have much to gain from an actual statement of their guidelines and policies. For established depository collections, a written collection development policy may codify and formalize an already working arrangement as well as become a vehicle for a critical review of practice. For all depositories, patron questions about the receipt or non-receipt of publications from a particular agency can be answered more easily with a clear, well thought-out, written collection development policy.

A written collection development policy also provides guidance for the continued selection of publications for the collection. The selection process no longer needs to be a "seat of the pants" operation but can be done within the framework of a previously worked-out guide. The result should be a more consistent and integrated collection of materials arriving in the depository shipment boxes. A written policy also aids in assuring the continuity and balance of a collection. A new documents librarian, for example, can quickly grasp both the nature and scope of the depository collection as well as the reasons for selection decisions.

.When changes to the selection profile are necessary or desirable, these changes can be made against the background of an existing selection policy. Policy changes, whether reflecting a new librarian's philosophy or an alteration in emphasis of the public served by the collection, should be a logical outgrowth of an earlier collection development plan.

The process of constructing a collection development policy also helps the library to develop new, and understand existing, priorities. Many areas of high and low emphasis are immediately evident; others are not so obvious and only become evident through such a process. It is clearly advantageous to have all such priorities available for examination and criticism.

Finally, all libraries collect materials within the context of other resources available to users. A library's documents collection should be complementary to other libraries within the geographic area, as well as to its "parent" library. An established, written collection development policy can enhance this complementary function by helping to pinpoint both unnecessary overlapping or existing gaps in coverage.

.A. Depository Responsibilities

A library, whether public or private, academic or special, must serve the information needs of its users. The first question to be asked when selecting or rejecting a depository item is whether or not patrons will need or use the material. While all libraries focus their collection efforts on their primary clientele, depositories also have another group of patrons--the general public. In the case of depositories, the general public is statutorily defined in terms of a Congressional district.

Documents received by depository libraries are not gifts, but are distributed at Government expense so that citizens may be informed of their government's activities. Providing public access to Government information is the rationale behind the Federal Depository Library Program.

When a library accepts depository status, it also accepts the responsibility to be a Government information bank for the residents of a Congressional district, as well as for the library's existing public. This responsibility extends to special as well as general libraries, and the responsibility becomes particularly great when there are no other depository collections close by.

The collection development policy should specifically mention the Congressional district to be served. Some statement should also be made that the library realizes its responsibility to meet the needs of the population of the Congressional district or relevant region.

.1. Understanding User Needs

While there is an inevitable element of crystal ball gazing when predicting information needs of library patrons, depository guidelines require that libraries make "good faith efforts" to identify user information needs in their area. Such efforts can include compiling basic demographic information such as age, race, language, income and educational level, etc., about the area being served.

As a large portion of depository use is for business rather than personal interest, an economic profile of the area is also extremely important. Congressional districts which are heavily agricultural will have much different information needs from districts which are primarily urban with a mix of light industry and retail trade. In academic and special libraries, information on various subject specializations and specific user groups can also be obtained. Polling neighboring libraries and other organizations is another way to make a demonstrable effort to determine existing and projected user needs.

More formalized user needs studies can also be undertaken. Examples of such efforts can be found in titles listed in "Sources for More Information" at the end of this section. Through these or other methods, depositories should seek to identify who their current and potential users are and what they are likely to require. Smaller depositories have a particular responsibility to make sure that their focused collections can satisfy community needs.

2. Availability of Other Resources

An individual library's collection is only one part of a much larger information bank. Cooperation and coordination among the custodians of Government information are essential to the efficiency and effectiveness of the Federal Depository Library Program.

Each library should take into account the strengths and weaknesses of other nearby depositories, for retrospective materials as well as for current items, and incorporate this information into its collection development policy. The collection of a public library documents department close to a university library that has been a depository since 1895 will be quite different from that of one in an isolated small town.

Depositories are encouraged to be aware of neighboring collections and to actively coordinate item number selection to provide the best coverage of Government information for their Congressional district. Such cooperative arrangements should be delineated in the collection development policy. Many states have also developed a written state plan for documents which can provide overall guidance on collection development issues. Copies of existing state plans are available from either GPO or your regional library.

3. Local Considerations

Internal factors of space and budget inevitably affect the extent of any documents collection. Your ability to buy and house a back run of Agriculture Decisions, for example, might influence your decision to select the current issues of that title. It might be better simply to refer patrons to another library where the whole run is available. Even if you are fortunate to obtain a back run for the cost of postage from a library discarding the set, there are other costs to be considered: staff time for requesting and processing the materials, the cost of shelf space and maintenance, and the cost of providing additional, expensive index access. In an era of increasing reliance on electronic resources, the library's ability to provide necessary hardware, software and technical expertise is also a consideration in collection development decisions.

B. Writing the Policy Statemen

After considering user needs, local resources, and your library's individual goals and situation, the next step in preparing a collection development policy statement is to prioritize the subject areas to be acquired. A simple list of subjects your library will collect is usually not sufficient. A policy establishing priorities among areas to be collected will determine the depth of collecting in each area.

Collection levels might be light in areas in which your patrons have no interest and exhaustive in areas of high interest. In areas with the highest priority, you would acquire everything available, regardless of age, type, amount, or format. In between will probably be a great many areas where you need some but not all of the materials available.

Subject areas should be ranked by the importance they have to the library users. Selection decisions should also be guided by the basic list of titles in the Guidelines and the core collection list in Appendix A of this Manual.

.1. Agencies and Subjects

In dealing with Government publications, you will need to think in terms of agencies more often than subjects, as that is the way the List of Classes is organized and the way the item numbers (units of selection) are established. The item cards will give you useful explanatory information, but if you are unsure of the kind of publishing an agency does, check the description of the agency in the United States Government Manual. From the description of the agency's mission you can often determine the range of subjects covered in its publications.

2. Format

With increasing frequency, you must choose not only whether or not to receive an item but also whether you want it in microfiche, paper, or electronic format. Little-used but voluminous material (such as the Congressional bills) make good microfiche selections as they save shelf space and are not inconvenient to use. Microfiche is also less expensive for GPO and the issuing agencies to produce. It is usually best to provide paper copy for frequently consulted material, bibliographic tools, and heavily used reference volumes.

Microfiche selections require the availability of reliable readers and reader-printers. The choice of electronic format requires consideration of the need for technical expertise for both patrons and library staff as well as availability of appropriate hardware and software. The possibility of cost sharing for telecommunications charges and other fees may also become an important concern in selecting electronic information sources.

.3. Non-Depository Materials

Vast amounts of government-produced information are also being made available through commercial sources. In these cases, the question of whether to receive the publications through the Federal Depository Library Program or by purchase will arise. Although the depository item has a distinct cost advantage, it may be that a commercial vendor can supply the material more quickly, in a more useful format, or with superior indexing, so that the balance might be tipped in favor of purchase. It is probably wise to remain as flexible as possible in this area since, almost weekly, there are announcements of Government publications available commercially, frequently in interesting new "packaging."

In addition to commercially-produced depository documents, there is also a wide variety of non-depository Government publications available from private publishers and Federal agencies. You may wish to include these materials in your collection as well.

Should you decide, for reasons of space or other needs, to substitute microform copies for any depository holdings, Chapter 4 of the Instructions to Depository Librariesprovides guidance.

4. Accessibility

It is essential to consider the question of accessibility in deciding whether to acquire particular items. While the Guidelines for the Federal Depository Library Program clearly require libraries to maintain a basic collection of current and retrospective catalogs and indexes, both Government and privately published, many depository materials require specialized access tools. It does little good to select such material if library patrons cannot make use of it. In some instances the necessary reference tools may be available on deposit, but in others, libraries will need to turn to privately published sources. If your library does not have the required access tools, whether public or private, you should carefully consider whether you should select the item.

5. Location

You may wish to expand your collection policy to include not only information on what will be acquired but also how it will be processed and stored. Here you might note if the documents collection is largely separate or integrated, if selected documents are placed in various reference or specialized collections, and if multiple copies of heavily used titles are purchased. If your depository participates in the selective housing program described elsewhere in this chapter, you might wish to include this information in your collection policy statement.

6. Referral and Use of Other Resources

After deciding what your depository will acquire, a well developed collection policy should also address the issue of how to handle the needs of patrons who require Government information you have not selected. Statements concerning inter-depository coordination of selections, availability of local resources, and procedures for referral or interlibrary loan services should be part of your collection development policy..

7. Disposal of Government Publications

Few things have value forever; so, just as a collection policy addresses the process of what to acquire, it should also specify what should be discarded or "weeded" and when. Generally speaking, this is a matter of applying the selection process factors in reverse (what you select most you discard least) with some additional consideration of the actual use of the material.

With Government publications, there is another critical consideration: Government publications received through the Federal Depository Library Program are not the property of the receiving library. The Government distributes the publications in an effort to inform the public but has not given them to the libraries.

By law, Congress is in a position to control the library's treatment of the publications. Title 44 of the United States Code states that depository libraries may dispose of the publications after retention for five years under section 1912 if the depository is served by a regional depository library. Chapter 19 goes on to say that "the libraries designated as regional depositories may permit depository libraries, within the areas served by them, to dispose of Government publications which they have retained for five years after first offering them to other depository libraries within their area, then to other libraries."(44 USC 1912).


This means that depositories need to work closely with their regional in the process of discarding publications. Regionals may compile discard lists from the depositories in their region at given intervals and circulate them so that a library may have an opportunity to fill gaps from another library's discards. If there are no takers, the regionals usually will give permission to discard.

Superseded documents may be discarded without permission upon receipt of a new edition or revision. Further information on the disposition of depository documents can be found in Chapter 4 of the Instructions to Depository Libraries. Titles of depository documents which should be discarded as they are superseded or revised appear in the Superseded List.

8. Evaluation

As Government information and user needs are constantly changing, no collection policy should be written and then forgotten. Regular review and evaluation are necessary to see that a policy is functioning properly. Reviews can utilize built-in performance measures to record how often the collection meets or does not meet user needs and in what areas, or they may be more informal, but some review process should be incorporated into the collection policy statement. A mechanism for regular evaluation and feedback will provide you with an opportunity to adjust the collection policy to make sure your judgments about selection and de-selection are correct.

.9. Sources for More Information

Several articles and books based on research in collection development for Federal depository libraries have been published, for example:

Hernon, Peter, Developing Collections of U.S. Government Publications, Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, Inc., 1982.

Management of Government Information Resources in Libraries.

Diane H. Smith, ed. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1993.

Morton, Bruce, "Toward a Comprehensive Collection Development Policy for Partial U.S. Depository Libraries," Government Publications Review, vol. 7A, no. 1, 1980, pp. 41-46.

Thomas, Virginia C. "Formulating a Federal Depository Collection Development Statement: Guidelines for Academic Law Library Survival," Legal Reference Services Quarterly, vol. 11 (1/2) 1991, pp. 111-126.

Suggested core collections for small and medium academic and public libraries and for all law libraries appear in Appendix A. These core collections, which are meant only as suggestions, are based on the best judgment of a group of experienced documents librarians.

.Section 2 Selective Housing of Documents

A depository library may transfer current or retrospective materials to another library through an option called selective housing. A library participating in this option, and receiving depository materials from a depository library, may be a branch library of the same institution as the depository library, another depository library, a public or academic library, or a special library. A formal agreement between the parties must be signed if the host library is not within the administrative purview of the depository offering the material for selective housing. The advantages of selective housing are that it:

1) Places documents in areas that allow for wider usage and greater accessibility;

2) Increases the scope of the available collection, thereby providing a larger number of publications and a greater level of public service;

3) Enhances the capabilities of participating libraries to develop retrospective or current subject, series, or agency collections; and

4) Alleviates space problems at participating institutions..

A. Responsibilities and Requirements

Depository materials located in selective housing sites are subject to the full range of depository standards and remain the responsibility of the designated depository library. This is the case whether the documents are routed through the designated depository or mailed directly to the selective housing site, as can be the case with USGS and DMA maps, Department of Energy microfiche, etc.

1. Record Keeping

It is important that the primary depository library's records clearly indicate the location of those items covered by the selective housing program; the shelflist, item number records, and other files must indicate location.

The receiving library must also keep records indicating the source of the materials, and the depository items should be clearly identified. These records must be kept down to the piece level, e.g. all depository maps, slip laws, slip opinions, etc., must be individually recorded.

It is not necessary, however, that the depository maintain the official holdings record for material selectively housed elsewhere. The official holdings record may be kept at the selective housing site, if it saves staff time and can be done in accordance with the Instructions.

. 2. Access

All depository publications must be made available to the general public free of charge. A twenty-four hour retrieval time for depository patron use of selectively housed material is a good objective.

3. Selection

Depository libraries participating in selective housing arrangements should bring new survey items to the attention of the staff of the receiving libraries and assist them in selecting items. A schedule should be developed for adjusting the selection of items covered by the selective housing agreement. The schedule should coincide with the Federal Depository Library Program annual item selection update scheduled by the Government Printing Office.

4. Discard

Depository publications may be discarded only according to established procedures. The "parent" depository library is responsible for the disposal of documents located in selective housing libraries.

.B. Selective Housing Agreement

When a depository library enters into a selective housing arrangement with other libraries, there must be a formal written agreement with each selective housing site. Each selective housing agreement must specify that the receiving library agrees to adhere to the policies of the Federal Depository Library Program set forth in Title 44, United States Code, the Instructions to Depository Libraries, the Guidelines for the Federal Depository Library Program, the Superseded List, etc. The agreements should also specify:

1) The justification for the transfer;

2) The duration of the agreement;

3) Conditions for the termination of the agreement;

4) The manner in which the collection will be maintained and organized according to the Instructions; 5) Guarantees of free access by the general public;

6) Arrangements for interlibrary loan cooperation; and

7) The procedure to be followed in the event the agreement is dissolved.

Selective housing agreements must be signed by directors of both libraries involved, with copies sent to the regional depository library and to the Depository Services Staff at LPS.

A sample memorandum of agreement follows.

.Agreement for Selective Housing of U.S. Depository Documents

This AGREEMENT is made on (date) by and between (lending) Library and (receiving) Library.This Agreement is entered into for the purpose of: (specify)The documents are lent for (specify time) but remain the property of the U.S. Government Printing Office under the control of (lending) Library. In pursuance of this Agreement (receiving) Library agrees to:

1) Assign the responsibility for carrying out the provisions of this Agreement for the U.S. Government publications deposited or loaned by (lending) library to the (Reference, Medical, etc.) Librarian of the (receiving) library.

2) Make available for free and unrestricted use all U.S. Government publications to the general public.

3) Lend to (lending) Library any U.S. Government publication that is selectively housed for a period up to (specify length of time).

4) Maintain all U.S. Government publications selectively housed in compliance with Title 44, United States Code; Instructions to Depository Libraries; Guidelines for the Federal Depository Library Program, Superseded List, etc.

5) Inventory, identify, and maintain a public record of the U.S. Government publications selectively housed under this Agreement.

6) Retain any classification numbers, stamps, and notes as supplied by (lending) Library.

7) Return to (lending) Library all U.S. Government publications which were selectively housed and which are no longer considered useful.

8) Replace any lost document.(lending) Library agrees to:

1) Transfer and continue to send documents which include, but are not limited to (specify publications of agencies, series, subjects, etc.) to (receiving) Library.

2) Keep records indicating the location of documents involved in this Agreement.

3) Abide by any borrowing Agreement made with (receiving) Library.

4) Provide selection lists and surveys and assist the (receiving) Library with development of the collection.

5) Accept all documents upon termination of this Agreement.

This Agreement may be terminated by written notice from either party (specify) days in advance before all documents are returned to (lending) Library.Director: (signature)

Director: (signature)
(lending) Library
(receiving) Library

Section 3 Suggested Core Collections

The core collection list in Appendix A is annotated to indicate titles strongly recommended for selection by small and medium public libraries, small and medium academic libraries, and law libraries. Large public and academic libraries would select most of the titles indicated for their type as a matter of course. Other types of libraries should review the list and select any titles that seem pertinent to their mission and community.Any titles which were discontinued as of June 1993 are omitted from the list.

A "small" collection is defined as one with up to 150,000 volumes. A "medium" collection is defined as containing 150,000-600,000 volumes.

A. Small/Medium Public Library

The core list titles were chosen by librarians at nine public libraries across the U.S.:

Arlington Public Library (Texas)
Barrington Public Library (Rhode Island)
Heights-University Heights Public Library (Ohio)
Forsythe County
Public Library (Winston- Salem, North Carolina)
Gadsden Public
Library (Alabama)
Glendale Public Library (Arizona) John F.
Kennedy Public Library (Vallejo, California)
St. Charles
City-County Library (Missouri), and
Thrall Library (Middletown,
New York).

.The Government documents collection in a public library should be chosen to meet the broad information needs of the community and Congressional district served. Although there is really no substitute for an actual assessment of community needs, materials should be selected in the areas of consumer affairs, health, small business and entrepreneurship, general statistical and demographic information, and current events issues. Additional factors, listed below, should also be weighed in building a depository collection:

1) Community interests and industries central to the local economy;

2) Prevalence of particular demographic groups;

3) Popular titles covered by indexes such as Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature;

4) Geographic location within the state and the role of the library in statewide interlibrary loan;

5) The services offered by the regional library serving the area and its proximity to the library;

6) Location and size of other depositories in the region and the level of cooperation with those depositories;

7) The limitations of staff and space; and 8) Local school and community college needs.

.Special attention should be paid to item numbers which are subdivided by state. These items are listed with "(nos.)" at the end, rather than the specific number, i.e. "0156-B-(nos.)." Several strategies may be employed in selecting these items:

1) Select only those items for the state the library is located in, plus the U.S. summary;

2) Select the home state and the surrounding or contiguous states, plus the U.S. summary;

3) Select the home state and other states in the Federally defined region plus the U.S. summary; or

4) Select all available items.

In an attempt to present a broad range of selections, the core list errs toward the inclusive. It can be used as a benchmark for startup collections but should also be consulted when evaluating existing collections.

B. Small/Medium Academic Library

In developing the suggested core list for an academic collection, certain assumptions and biases were inevitably incorporated. A small academic library was assumed to be a liberal arts institution which selected approximately 20% of the active item numbers. A medium academic library selected about 40% of the active item numbers. Another basic premise was that, although all publications are not selected, a depository library should be able to identify and/or locate whatever information is requested. Therefore, many of the agency telephone directories, bibliographies and lists of publications, and annual reports are part of the core collection. Other factors considered were whether the periodical titles were indexed in commercial indexes likely to be found in small academic libraries, and whether the publications were listed in the Guidelines for the Federal Depository Library Program (That listing of the Basic Collection is now included in Appendix C of this Manual.)

Criteria which the depository in a small academic institution should consider when selecting items to enhance a core collection are as follows:

1) The curriculum of the institution;

2) The research interests of the faculty;

3) The subject strengths of the library's general collection;

4) The type and variety of extracurricular activities;

5) The economic base of the community which the library serves;

6) Demographic characteristics of the population served;

7) The physical environment in which the library is located (farming, forests, etc.);

8) Other characteristics of the community (urban or rural, historic, business and manufacturing, recreational sites and interests;

9) The distance to other selective depository libraries or a regional depository library;

10) Local or regional cooperative acquisition programs; and

11) The number and existence of local, regional, and state Government agencies in the community.The core collection items marked "L" and "P" may also be useful in building a depository collection or in conducting an evaluation of an existing collection.

.C. Law Library

A suggested core collection may be useful either as a starting point for law library depositories building a Government documents collection with a legal focus or as an evaluation tool for comparing their own selection patterns. In making selections based on or beyond this core list, law library depositories need to consider the following factors:

1) Unique characteristics of the library's primary patrons;
2) Information needs of citizens in the local community and in the Congressional district (selection patterns of the highest state appellate court libraries may differ somewhat, since they are excused by law from public access requirements);

3) Proximity to other selective depositories and to the regional depository library. As they develop their depository collections, law libraries are encouraged to try the following strategies:
a) Cooperation with other nearby selectives, ensuring that users in the local area have access to a wide range of Government information;
b) Establishment of a selective housing arrangement with a non-depository library in the area to meet local needs; and
c) Evaluation of existing collections by comparing selections with the suggested core collection list. This core list was derived from data in the Government Printing Office Automated Item Number File for the 219 law library depositories. Of this number, 157 are law libraries in academic institutions and 62 are law libraries of other types, such as court libraries and state law libraries. The "typical" law library depository selects about 13% of the available item numbers.The differences in the selection patterns of depositories in academic law libraries and of those in other settings are not particularly pronounced. Most academic law library depositories, however, choose to receive annual reports from a number of agencies, depending on the mission of the institution. Other law libraries seem to place more emphasis on various lists, directories, rules and forms.

In order to build a limited legal interest depository collection, certain categories of item numbers may be avoided because they contain materials of limited or ephemeral value to a law collection or because the collection already contains multiple copies of commercially annotated versions of such materials as Federal statutes and regulations. A law library may wish to omit:

1) General Publications
2) Handbooks, Manuals and Guides
3) Laws
4) Regulations, Rules and Instructions.

Obviously exceptions to omitting these categories may be made. For example, agency versions of laws and regulations have been selected by many law libraries (see items 0539-A, Federal Trade Commission, and 0726, Immigration and Naturalization Service). Likewise, the selection of the Regulations, Rules, Instructions category may be a useful choice in the case of court publications (see items 0729-A, Administrative Office of U.S. Courts, and 0731-B, United States Court of Claims). Agency decisions also remain popular selections for law libraries, even though the distribution has changed from paper to microfiche format in recent years.

Basic titles recommended in of the Guidelines for the Federal Depository Library Program (revised 1987) have all been included in this core list. One title, Census Catalog and Guide (item 0138, C 3.163/3:), merits special consideration for selection. Although not indicated in the core list, the addition of Census materials for the home state would enhance the law library's selection profile.

A few titles may appear in the core list for law libraries only because they are attached to the same item number as another, law-related, title. For example, items 0002 and 0512-A-24 contain agency decisions and other materials of less value in a law-focused collection. Omitted from this list is "all libraries" item 0556-C, since it is part of the selection profile of every depository. Publication format selection should be thoughtfully determined.

The following examples are possible choices:

1) Code of Federal Regulations and Monthly Catalog in paper format.

2) Congressional Record: daily issues, Daily Digest, and the final Index in paper format; final Record in microfiche.

3) Congressional hearings, especially those of the House and Senate Judiciary Committees, in microfiche format. (Many law libraries purchase complete collections of Congressional hearings from commercial vendors.)

.The increasing numbers of publications in CD-ROM and other electronic formats are certain to play a significant role in selection patterns of law libraries. Law library CD collections will no doubt include such legal information sources as the Congressional Record, Federal Register, Code of Federal Regulations, and U.S. Supreme Court opinions as these publications become accessible electronically to depository libraries through the Federal Depository Library Program.


[ Back to the Table of Contents ]

Chapter 3

Section 1. USGS, DMA, & NOS Maps

A. USGS Maps

1. Geologic and Hydrologic Maps
2. Status and Progress of Operations Maps
3. Quadrangle Maps
4. Special Topographic and Other Maps
5. Land Use, Land Cover, and Associated Maps
B. Defense Mapping Agency Maps
1. Aeronautical and Nautical Charts
2. Other DMA Maps C. NOS MapsSection
2. Collection Development
A. Selection Considerations.

3. Technical Processing

A. Statistics
B. Shelflist
C. Map Indexes from USGS
D. Catalogs of DMA Products
E. Sorting, Cataloging, and Shelving
F. Claiming

Section 4. Further Reading.

Chapter 3 Maps

Maps are no strangers to depository libraries; they have been distributed by the Government Printing Office since the beginning of the Federal Depository Library Program. These depository maps have appeared as complete atlases, folded pamphlets, flat map sets and most often as illustrative material folded away into pockets at the back of environmental impact statements, geological reports, and other documents. The Forest Service, Soil Conservation Service, Central Intelligence Agency, Bureau of the Census, and National Park Service are only a few of the many Federal agencies that have distributed their maps to depository libraries through GPO for years.

Maps can portray complex environmental data with such economy of color, line, and word that they always represent a wise use of library space and staff time. In addition, the need for maps and the information provided by them continues to increase, particularly among individuals involved in recreation land planning and environmental studies.

Because depository maps have been treated by GPO in the same manner as the majority of other documents, they have created few problems in depository libraries. They are fully cataloged and appear in the Monthly Catalog, facilitating reference work.

.Section 1

USGS, DMA, and NOS Maps

The status of maps in the Federal Depository Library Program changed dramatically beginning in 1983. Two large map issuing agencies of the Federal government, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Defense Mapping Agency (DMA), which until then had conducted their own separate depository programs, agreed to make their map products available to all depository libraries.

It is now possible for depository libraries to select up to 3,500 maps per year from USGS and DMA--maps that until 1983 were only available to them through purchase or other non-GPO arrangements. Similarly, the National Ocean Service (NOS) map depository program ceased as of October 1, 1988, and their nautical and aeronautical charts of the United States and possessions became available through the Federal Depository Library Program.

.A. USGS Maps

Every major map series produced by the USGS is available for selection, and annotations appear on item cards and in the Union List of Item Selections (MF). USGS ships maps from its map distribution center in Denver, Colorado every two to three weeks. Shipments typically contain 20 to 70 maps depending on whether the maps are shipped flat or folded.

Map products offered for selection fall into five broad categories:

Geologic and Hydrologic Maps

Status and Progress of Operations Maps

Quadrangle Maps

Special Topographic and Other Map Series

Land Use, Land Cover and Associated Maps

1. Geologic and Hydrologic Maps

In most mailings, the different geologic and hydrologic maps in this category are shipped folded in 30 x 24 cm. manila envelopes with the title and series number printed on the front. Exceptions to this shipping format are made for the occasional oversized maps. The Index to Geologic Mapping of the United States (I 19.86:), formerly available under item 0619-G (I 19.41/6:), is now shipped under item 0619-G-28. All other titles included in this category are items offered for selection. It is estimated that between 145 and 355 titles will arrive annually if all items are selected.

.2. Status and Progress of Operations Maps

Without exception, Status and Progress of Operations maps portray the status of various map series using a base map of the United States. They are sent folded. Important state index maps identifying each individually published 7.5-minute quadrangle are not included in this category. (See Map Indexes later in this section.)

3. Quadrangle Maps

Some 1,200-1,500 new and revised maps are produced each year for the entire United States, making this the largest group of maps available for selection. Quadrangles are most frequently the 7.5 minute series topographic quadrangles. However, they may also be planimetric, bathymetric, orthophoto quadrangles, etc. Individual states can be selected. Libraries might consider simply buying maps for neighboring states. For instance, a Florida depository library may wish to select only the state of Florida maps and purchase a few quadrangle maps of Georgia that border on Florida, instead of selecting the item number for the whole state of Georgia.

The USGS 7.5-minute series and 1:63,360 scale series quadrangles, as well as the 1:50,000 scale quadrangles cooperatively produced by the USGS and the DMA, are available. One item number is assigned to all the quadrangle maps for each state. If one of these three series is selected, then all three are received.

Quadrangles are large scale maps. The 7.5-minute maps employ the scale of 1:24,000 and less often 1:25,000 (1 inch on the map equals about 2000 feet on the ground). On the 1:63,360 scale maps, 1 inch on the map equals 1 mile on the ground. The DMA/ USGS quadrangles carry a scale of 1:50,000.

4. Special Topographic and Other Maps

This category includes the two 1:250,000 scale series of the United States and Alaska; five different map series covering Antarctica; four versions of state maps; National Park Service maps; slope maps; country maps; 1:100,000 and 1:1,000,000-scale maps of the United States; separate pages from the National Atlas; and a 1:100,000-scale Bureau of Land Management series in two versions, land ownership and land/minerals ownership. Most of these are large sheet maps impossible to integrate fully with the traditional documents collection.

5. Land Use, Land Cover, and Associated Maps

These maps are most often shipped in 30 x 24 cm. manila envelopes with the title and series number printed on the front. The maps depict various features such as factories, cities and highways, or forest land and pasture. Associated maps include political units, corrected hydrologic units after 1983, county subdivisions, and Federal land ownership.

B. Defense Mapping Agency Maps

A complete set of DMA maps and charts consists of 4700 pieces. If your library were to select all products, you would not receive an initial distribution of each map and chart, but would receive new and revised products when published. A complete set equates to approximately 450 pieces per year.

The DMA allows some latitude in defining selections since DMA offers little in the way of domestic mapping. The maps and charts offered for selection are categorized into three product groups: aeronautical charts, nautical charts, and other DMA maps.

1. Aeronautical and Nautical Charts

DMA produces aeronautical and nautical charts for all areas of the world except the United States, its territories and possessions. The primary purpose of aeronautical and nautical charts is to serve as tools for air and water navigation. In addition to the navigational information and instructions, there is other information of general interest. For instance, a nautical chart of the Caribbean portrays information essential to the navigator as well as some detailed information about bays, inlets, and cultural features.

2. Other DMA Maps

DMA's other maps include special map series that show geography, political areas, or border outlines, or that act as navigational plotting charts.

C. NOS Maps

The National Ocean Service produces aeronautical and nautical charts for the United States, its territories and possessions. Most of these are dated serial maps, and are to be used only until the date printed on each one..

Section 2

Collection Development

The selection of maps for most depository libraries will probably fall under the same general collection development policies which have been established for an institution as a whole. There are factors in the development of map collections which should be considered and which are specific to maps. The question of circulation policy and securing the collection will have to be addressed.

What effect will decisions in these areas have on servicing the collection, reference work, public access? Is there an alternative to locked map cabinets? Extra clerical help may be needed for processing the increased number of maps and may need to be seasonal depending on the frequency of distribution of materials from USGS, NOS, and DMA. Specialized supplies, equipment or furniture for processing, handling, storing, servicing, and using these materials must be obtained. Light tables, map cabinets, wall hangers, pigeon hole or other shelving devices may have to be purchased.


A. Selection Considerations

Some other considerations, more specific to selection of the maps themselves, are given below.

1) All regional depository libraries must select all map series unless selective housing arrangements have been made to designate another library to receive the regional's maps. Selective depositories may also make arrangements to designate another library to receive maps, as well as other depository materials.

2) Maps of a library's local area and region will always be in much higher demand than those of other states and regions. If it is possible to select a series by state, a library in, for example, New Jersey should consider whether it really needs detailed coverage of Texas or other far away states. Would the state maps alone serve its users' needs?

3) The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) only maps areas where it has jurisdiction. Thus, non-public land states such as Texas and the states bordering the Atlantic (except Florida) will never be mapped by BLM.

4) Selections may be added annually, when LPS issues the item selection update. Selections may be dropped at any time.

5) Maps of foreign countries offered by DMA are revised as required. Outline (plotting) maps are of limited use; therefore try to be as selective as possible..

6) USGS maps are generally photorevised every 5 to 10 years. The quadrangles have a regulated 5-year revision cycle. However, when necessary during that cycle, "reprints with changes" are issued without there being any change made to the edition statement and date printed on the map. A new USGS "imprint date" is the only clue that changes have been made. The older editions may be superseded by the newer ones, but it is recommended that "reprints with changes," together with the original edition, be held until a new edition is issued and named as such.

7) NOS serial maps are revised frequently, often every 28 to 56 days. NOS charts, however, are revised only as needed, rarely more than every other year.

8) Map depositories are subject to the various provisions and guidelines of the Instructions to Depository Libraries and Title 44, United States Code.A comprehensive item number list of maps and atlases available for selection by depository libraries is included in Appendix B.

.Section 3
Technical Processing

For the technical processing of maps, follow the general guidelines in Chapter 5, Bibliographic Control. For maps arriving folded in manila envelopes, be sure to stamp all pieces: the map, any text that may be included, and the outside of the folder. NOS aeronautical and nautical charts should be stamped "Not to be used for navigational purposes."

A. Statistics

It is suggested that libraries keep separate statistics for maps arriving from the U.S. Geological Survey, National Ocean Service, and the Defense Mapping Agency.

B. Shelflist

Create a 3" x 5" shelflist card or automated record for each map series selected. Make additional records for maps received in each of the following series from the USGS:

1) State Map Series (all four types)
2) National Park Series
3) Slope Maps
4) National Atlas Separates

Maps received in other series can be more accurately recorded on collective check-in or other pre-printed shelflist cards. Making a card for all maps arriving in the library would be inefficient. Form cards, however, have only a limited amount of space for recording information and may have to be supplemented with other forms or cards.

Pre-printed cards with numbered boxes are devised for checking in USGS folded Geologic and Hydrologic maps and Land Use and Land Cover maps. Maps in these series are numbered consecutively following the prefix: for example, GQ-1365, HA-405, and L-204. Pre-printed cards should also be used to record the annual and semi-annual maps included in the Status and Progress of Operations group.

C. Map Indexes from USGS

Map indexes are essential for both the processing and retrieval of maps. A library can seldom have too many indexes. Even if a library selects and receives all available map series and their indexes covering its state or region, it must also allow for possible user requests for information concerning the availability of maps outside the library's collection interests. Map indexes will readily supply this information and are therefore indispensable in providing effective reference service.

These indexes differ in their method of selection, distribution, and coverage.

Two are available for selection under their own item number and cover map series distributed under different item numbers. These are:

Item 0619-G-13 (I 19.96:) "Index to Intermediate Scale Mapping," which serves as the index map for the 3 following series:

1) 1:100,000-scale topographic quadrangles (USGS) [Item 0619-G-25, I 19.110:]

2) 1:100,000-scale land/minerals ownership quadrangles (BLM) [Item 0619-G-16, I 53.11/4: and I 53.11/4-2:]

3) County map series (USGS) [Item 0619-P-01 to -53, I 19.108:]

Item 0619-G-14. Three map indexes are issued under this item number:

1) Index to Orthophotoquad Mapping

2) Index to USGS/DMA 1:50,000 scale Quadrangle Mapping, and

3) Index to Land Use and Land Cover Maps and Digital Data.

The first 2 indexes cover maps which are distributed together with the standard USGS quadrangles under item 0619-M-01 to -53. The last covers Land Use and Land Cover maps distributed under item 0619-G-27.

There are 5 other map indexes that are not explicitly depository items, although the USGS will distribute them as they are issued, upon request. The major indexes are listed below.

1) Index of Small-Scale Maps of the United States. Indexes the following map series:

United States Series of Topographic Maps, 1:250,000 (Exclusive of Alaska). Item 0619-G-17

State Map Series (Planimetric 1:500,000). Item 0619-K-01 to -53
State Map Series (Shaded Relief, 1:500,000). Item 0619-K-01 to -53

National Atlas Separates (Reference Maps) 1:2,000,000. Item 0619-G-26)

2) Index to USGS Topographic Map Coverage of the National Park Series. Item 0619-G-21

3) Antarctica Map Index. Indexes all five Antarctica series. Item 0619-G-194)

Alaska Map Index. Indexes Alaska 1:250,000-scale series. Item 0619-G-18

Alaska 1:25,000 and 1:63,360-scale topographic maps. Item 0619-M-02

5) Individual State Map Indexes. The USGS issues a new booklet index which consists of a foldout index for locating quadrangle areas by map name and scale. Each map is identified by an alpha-numeric code which is used by USGS to store and locate maps in the warehouse. This alpha-numeric code appears on the USGS shipping lists.

Libraries should request individual state map indexes and not wait for the USGS to send them. State map indexes include much information indicating where maps can be purchased locally over the counter, as well as addresses of map libraries in the state. They also index all the major USGS maps covering the state.

Librarians should also request a supply of USGS map order forms to enhance reference service. Map indexes and order forms are available from:

Map Distribution Branch
U.S. Geological Survey
Box 25286, Federal Center
Denver, CO 80225

To keep track of USGS maps, refer to the annual Publications of the Geological Survey, (item 0623; I 19.14:) and to the monthly list of new publications and maps, New Publications of the Geological Survey, (Item 0622;I 19.14/4:).

Also available under item 0623 is the pamphlet Price and Availability List of U.S. Geological Survey Publications (I 19.41/9:). This pamphlet is updated and printed annually, and will enhance reference service because it provides current prices of all books and thematic maps available. .The cumulations and the pamphlet are available from:

Books and Open File Reports
Section U.S. Geological Survey
Box 25425 Federal Center
Denver, CO 80225

When maps arrive, annotate the appropriate map index to indicate holdings. For maps too new to be found on the index map, write in the quadrangle name and date on the index. As holdings are noted on the map index, the index will then not only serve as a reference tool for locating maps, it will also function as a holdings record for the library.

D. Catalogs of DMA Products

The nautical and aeronautical products offered by the Defense Mapping Agency (DMA) to depository libraries are listed in the DMA Public Sale Nautical Charts and Publications catalog (item 0378-E-11) and the DMA Aeronautical Charts and Publications catalog (item 0378-E-08). These catalogs, published by the National Ocean Service (NOS), are distributed by GPO. These catalogs provide NOS stock numbers for DMA products. A cross reference to DMA stock numbers is provided in the catalogs. Librarians should use the cross reference guide when purchasing DMA map products. Libraries should use the List of Classes and the corresponding item numbers to select maps from the Federal Depository Library Program.

DMA Public Sale of Topographic Maps and Publications (item 0378-E-06) is now published by USGS but distributed by GPO. The aeronautical catalog and the topographic catalog are each one volume catalogs. The nautical charts catalog comes in nine regionalized volumes with each one containing a miscellaneous publications section.The DMA continues to make automatic distribution of the map and chart products directly to depository libraries. GPO supplies DMA with computer printouts containing depository library item selections.

E. Sorting, Cataloging, and Shelving

As mentioned earlier, maps that arrive folded are suitable for interfiling on regular document shelves. This includes USGS geologic and hydrologic maps, and land use and land cover and associated maps, National Ocean Service maps, and the DMA aeronautical charts.

SuDocs numbers appear on shipping lists accompanying maps which GPO distributes. For maps shipped directly from other agencies, the SuDocs numbers can be found in the Monthly Catalog. Alternatively, the number can be constructed by following the guidelines in the GPO Classification Manual, chapter 6.

Libraries storing maps separately from the depository collection may wish to classify them according to the Library of Congress "G" Schedule. The Library of Congress accepts GPO's cataloging for maps. When a cataloging record appears in the Monthly Catalog for a certain map series, use that record and add a Library of Congress "G" classification number to it. You may want to collaborate with your own technical services department in order to find the most acceptable way to catalog maps.

Another possibility for sorting topographic quadrangles is to group the quadrangles by state and alphabetize quadrangles within the state, relying on the individual state map indexes to access maps in these series. Another alternative is to file them according to the alpha-numeric code printed on the maps. For the other United States map series, alphabetize the quadrangles within each series. The Antarctica map series should be sorted by scale and map number. Keep indexes near the maps.

The Defense Mapping Agency and the National Ocean Service rely solely on map numbers, so keep all series together and file by the number. Keep the map indexes handy.

The best method of storing maps is flat in map cabinets or vertically in plain files. The fewer folds in a map the better. Rolling maps is acceptable, but makes access and use more difficult.

F. Claiming

With each depository shipment, USGS supplies a shipping list that carries the item number, state sequence number, map title, and scale information. Claim any missing publications by returning a copy of the list with the missing publications circled.

A library may claim replacement copies for only those maps which it selected and that have been issued since the library became a depository for maps.

GPO will maintain item selection records for participants in the depository map distribution programs. For problems with claims, receipts of replacements, miscellaneous requests, questions or other difficulties with distribution under the USGS program, contact:

Federal Map Depository Library Program
U.S. Geological Survey
National Mapping Division,
MS 509 National Center
Reston, VA 22092
Phone: (703) 648-5907 or -6884

To claim a DMA product which you have selected, contact DMA Customer Service at:

DMA Combat Support Center
6001 MacArthur Boulevard (D-67)
Bethesda, MD 20816-5001
(301) 227-5518
Fax: (301) 227-2498

To be placed on automatic distribution via the annual item selection update cycle, or to discontinue an item selection, contact:

Library Programs Service (SLLA)
U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, DC 20401
(202) 512-1153
Fax: (202) 512-1636

All correspondence or telephone calls to DMA must contain your DODAAC account number, not your GPO assigned depository library number..

Section 4
Further Reading

Two basic books on map librarianship deserve the attention of the documents librarian with little knowledge of this specialized field. Mary Larsgaard's excellent Map Librarianship, 2nd edition (Littleton, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1987), introduces the important subjects of the field such as map cataloging and classification schemes, map acquisition, care and storage of maps, and public service, and also provides an exhaustive bibliography, allowing readers to explore every dimension of map librarianship. Also helpful are the many appendixes including addresses of map dealers, state map issuing agencies, a sampling of manufacturers of map room equipment, and a helpful glossary of map terminology.

Guide for a Small Map Library by Barbara E. Farrell and Aileen Desbarates, 2nd ed. (Ottawa: Association of Canadian Map Libraries, 1984) serves as a practical handbook addressed to those who are not full-time map librarians. Information is well compartmentalized so the reader is able to pick and choose information relevant to the question at hand. Proper procedures necessary for the smooth operation of a small map library are outlined and backed up with numerous references. A thoughtful review of this Guide will assure that a newly formed map library will begin with the best advice available today.

A search through the Library Literature index will yield helpful articles on topics such as selecting map reading tools, standards for university map libraries, and map collection development policies.

Charles Seavey has a good explanation of "scale" in his article, "Collection Development for Government Map Collections," (Government Publications Review, vol. 8A, 1981, pp. 23-24). His final point is worth noting carefully: "the more detail of information desired, the larger the scale of map which must be obtained, the actual pieces of paper which must be... stored and made accessible." This point of view should help librarians with item number selection and amendments.

Standards for map libraries are covered in the Special Libraries Association Geography and Map Division's Standards for University Map Libraries, which is modeled on ACRL Standards for University Libraries.

Additional sources of help are the following organizations in map librarianship and their bulletins: Map and Geography Round Table American Library Association 50 East Huron Street Chicago, IL 60611 Baseline and Meridian

Geography and Map Division Special Libraries Association 235 Park Avenue South New York, NY 10003 Bulletin

Western Association of Map Libraries Richard Soares, Business Manager P.O. Box 1667 Provo, UT 84603 Information Bulletin and other sales items

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Chapter 4
Electronic Publications

Section 1. Electronic Formats Available

A. History

B. Distribution

C. Collection Development Guidelines

1. AccessSection

2. Technical Processing

A. Housing

B. Backing Up Diskettes

C. Documentation

D. Bibliographic Access

E. Statistics

F. Disposal

.Section 3.

Hardware and Software

A. Recommended Minimum Technical Guidelines for Federal Depository Libraries

1. Minimum Workstation Configuration
2. Software
3. Costs
4. Rationale
B. Software Selection
C. Hard Disk Management
D. Workstation Management

Section 4. Electronic Bulletin Boards and Other Remote On-line Systems

Section 5. Reference Service and Policies for Electronic Publications


Chapter 4 Electronic Publications

Section 1
Electronic Formats Available

The current trend within the Federal Government to collect, store, and disseminate information in electronic formats will increasingly challenge depository libraries to take advantage of the opportunities presented by these formats. In many ways depository libraries will manage electronic information much as they have managed paper and microformat products. Procedures for handling item cards and files, shipping lists, claims, and check-in, for example, will change little in adapting to CD-ROMs and floppy diskettes.

On the other hand, electronic products will demand some new solutions, such as determining means for housing electronic materials, selecting equipment and software, devising collection development policies, and, perhaps most difficult, establishing policies regarding public access to depository information in electronic formats. Providing for public access is particularly difficult owing to the intensive demands that electronic products place on budgets and staff..

This chapter addresses issues that depository librarians must consider in managing electronic products. The central focus is on tangible products, like CD-ROMs and floppy diskettes. The chapter will also touch upon electronic bulletin boards and other on-line data resources, which will presumably increase in importance over the coming years. The wide array of new issues that arises as the information revolution deepens cannot possibly be addressed at this point.

A. History

For several years the Government Printing Office, the Depository Library Council, and depository librarians have worked to include information formats other than paper and microfiche in the depository system. This effort has primarily been a response to the fact that many Federal agencies are increasingly adopting electronic formats for disseminating their information resources. As early as 1981 the Depository Library Council began investigating with GPO the feasibility of providing free access to this Federally produced information through the Federal Depository Library Program, and in 1988, the Public Printer requested approval from the Joint Committee on Printing to distribute information in electronic formats.

In May 1991, the GPO's General Counsel issued two opinions asserting that the GPO has the authority and responsibility to disseminate Federal information in electronic formats through the Federal Depository Library Program. These opinions are a reflection of GPO's commitment to the procurement and dissemination of electronic information products and services..

B. Distribution

The basic criteria GPO has adopted for distribution of electronic products and services are derived from discussions held at the fall 1990 Depository Library Council meeting and from a subsequent survey published in Administrative Notes, vol. 12, no. 15, 6/30/91. The following review summarizes the essential features of GPO's electronic product distribution.

Electronic products are usually distributed either by specific titles and specific item numbers or under general item numbers for "Electronic Products." If necessary, products are sent under "General Publications" item numbers. Libraries are surveyed for their selections in advance of distribution when possible.

Electronic products are shipped and listed on a special "E" series of shipping lists. Other sources of information about these products are Administrative Notes, the Federal Bulletin Board (202-512-1397), and the item surveys.

Electronic data products are distributed in the manner in which they are provided by the publishing agency. Electronic data products require retrieval or user application software to facilitate extraction or manipulation of the data they contain. If no retrieval software is provided by the agency, LPS distributes the data without software, describing its software requirements when possible. If public domain (free) software is available, LPS either acquires and distributes it when possible or provides information about its procurement. Fees for shareware software acquired by LPS for distribution will be paid by LPS.

Paper copies of all CD-ROM documentation describing the file structure of the data product are obtained by LPS from the issuing agency and distributed, even when such documentation is also included on the disc. Although GPO encourages agencies to produce electronic products as "packages," depository libraries may receive parts of some electronic data products at different times.

Though explicit, these criteria will continue to change as the Federal information environment evolves. For example, because GPO has no authority to manipulate the content, format, documentation, or software of these products, GPO may distribute electronic products that lack adequate documentation or that are otherwise incomplete or inadequate for the depository library setting. At present GPO must distribute the products in whatever condition they are received from the agencies.

C. Collection Development Guidelines

Because electronic products require special equipment and expertise, and demand significant amounts of staff time both in maintenance and in reference service, selection of electronic products often involves investments of resources far greater than were required for traditional paper and microfiche publications. For this reason, librarians must be particularly discriminating when selecting electronic items. Selectors must weigh the monetary costs of selecting these items against the loss of this information to their patrons if the materials are not selected. That loss is the enhanced flexibility for searching and exporting information in electronic formats. The following discussion provides some general guidelines for selecting items in electronic formats, and suggests alternatives that may allow librarians to select some electronic items even if they cannot afford the staffing and equipment needed to provide ready access to the information.

The rule of thumb for libraries that have the financial, staff, and equipment resources necessary to accommodate electronic products is that they should select all electronic products that fall within their overall selection development strategy. For example, it would be expected that a library which selects the Monthly Energy Review and has the capability to provide access to the electronic version of the Review would select it instead of or in addition to the paper item. Furthermore, if that library selects most Census publications (in paper or fiche) it would presumably select the various Census CD-ROMs. On the other hand, a library that selects no Health and Human Services publications, though well equipped with computing power to operate CD-ROMs, would presumably not select the Center for Disease Control's CD. The information on the CD falls outside the library's collection plan..

1. Access

Depository libraries that do not have the equipment, software, or staffing necessary to provide in-house access to electronic information must carefully consider several alternatives before selecting (or not selecting) electronic items. One alternative to providing in-house access is circulating electronic materials

As noted later under the heading "Backing up Diskettes," CD-ROMs may be circulated without undue concern for their physical condition. Circulation of diskettes should also be considered, though it must be noted that the physical safety of the diskettes and the integrity of the data are endangered. Furthermore, viruses may inadvertently or deliberately be written to diskettes during circulation. Examples of items that may be useful when circulated are the various Census CD-ROMs, most of which have software included on the CD and are dBASE accessible, and the Department of Energy's Monthly Energy Review on diskette, which is also in dBASE.

A second alternative is to provide selective housing for electronic materials off-site, such as in a branch library that can support the products. Other examples of selective housing include an academic library housing the Census TIGER/Line files in a geography computer lab or a public library housing the EPA's Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) in a county or city planning office. The ability of these off-site locations to provide public access to these products is crucial..

A Memorandum of Agreement must be signed, and must clearly state the off-site agency's responsibilities for providing access, retention, compliance with Title 44, United States Code, and with the Instructions to Depository Libraries. The arrival of electronic products should encourage all depository librarians, including those who have substantial equipment outlays, to consider possibilities for off-site housing of electronic information. In many cases an off-site location may provide significantly better access to the information than the depository library..

A third alternative--simply not to select the material--should be adopted only after careful consideration of the alternatives mentioned above. In deciding not to select on the grounds that resources are not available to access the materials, librarians must consider how likely it is that equipment and staffing may become available in the future.

Librarians must also consider whether specific electronic products should be selected simply to make them available even though library staff cannot provide much assistance with them. Many libraries currently make such decisions with foreign language materials. For a review of GPO policy, see "Public Access in an Electronic Environment" in Administrative Notes, vol. 13, no. 12, June 15, 1992.

.Section 2
Technical Processing

Technical care for electronic products must be of particular concern for depository librarians. Three important considerations are

1) housing the materials;

2) making back-up copies of products when appropriate; and

3) making the products available.

Tangible depository electronic products, such as CD-ROMs and floppy diskettes, are the focus of this section.

Processing considerations for information made available through the Federal Bulletin Board and other on-line Federal databases and bulletin boards are addressed in the section on Electronic Bulletin Boards.

A. Housing

Owing to their delicate nature, electronic products, particularly floppy diskettes, should be housed in environments that inhibit bending, scratching, or crushing of the products and that preclude exposure to dust and temperature extremes. Generally speaking, electronic products should not be shelved alongside other materials on the regular shelves unless first placed in some sort of packaging specially designed to prevent damage. All such packaging must clearly indicate that a diskette or other electronic product is contained therein to warn library staff not to desensitize the items during circulation -- the magnetic desensitizer will erase diskettes..

It is anticipated that most libraries will procure furniture or equipment specifically designed for housing electronic products (much as they have acquired microfiche and microfilm cabinets to house microforms). Such furniture is readily available from library vendors.

By being segregated into special housing, however, electronic materials may tend to be less visible owing to their isolation from mainstream shelving. Therefore, some method should be implemented to direct patrons to electronic materials that are specially housed. Notations on shelf-list cards, location indicators on in-house catalog records, or placement of dummies in the stacks are all successful in clarifying the location of specially housed materials.

Similarly, methods must be established to direct patrons to paper documentation for the electronic products if the documentation is shelved in a different location, such as in the stacks. Conversely, documentation shelved in the stacks should be annotated to direct patrons to the specially housed electronic products.

CD-ROM products are more durable than floppy diskettes and are therefore much less a problem in terms of storage. Although CDs are not easily damaged, scratches and other surface blemishes can ruin them. All CDs should be stored either in plastic jewel box cases, in CD-ROM caddies, or in paper slips (much like diskette slips). CD-ROM cabinets are available, both small multi-drawer table top units and full height floor units. CD-ROMs can also be stored in conventional microfiche cabinets if arranged at an angle..

B. Backing Up Diskettes

Back up copies must be made for all diskettes. This is common practice with software and data diskettes that are purchased from private vendors. It is recommended that the original diskettes be archived and that copies be used for public access. If the computer can accommodate both 5 1/4" and 3 1/2" floppy diskettes, another measure of protection can be achieved by backing up the archival 5 1/4" floppy diskettes onto the more durable 3 1/2" diskettes for public use or as circulating copies.

It is further recommended that users be encouraged to copy rather than to circulate diskettes. In all depository libraries that select items on diskettes, the ability to copy diskettes should also be available. An additional recommendation is that the original and copy diskettes be stored in separate locations. Whether electronic products are allowed to circulate or not is at the discretion of each depository library.

Some depository datafiles and software may be appropriate for loading on microcomputer hard drives. Each library will necessarily decide which products are appropriate for hard disk storage in terms of their own use patterns. A datafile that could be useful on a hard disk, for example, is the Monthly Energy Review. A depository software product that could be useful if available on a hard drive is Epi-Info, a database manager/statistical software package distributed by the Centers for Disease Control. Most depository datafiles will receive such irregular use that loading them onto hard drives will be excessively expensive.

When loading datafiles to hard disks for public access, precautions must be taken to prevent users from altering the contents of the files. DOS shell applications such as PC Tools and Norton Utilities, for example, can be used to set directory attribute bytes to "read only." [GPO does not endorse these particular products; they are listed as examples only.] Taking this step prevents writing over the original files.

C. Documentation

Most electronic products have some form of paper documentation that describes the product, provides instructions on setting the product up, or, when applicable, contains instructions on how to use the product's software. Such documentation is critical for managing the information products.

Documentation varies greatly, both in its format and in the quality of content. At the more favorable extreme, documentation is clearly written and arrives simultaneously with the electronic product. At the other extreme there is no documentation. Many variations occur between these extremes. Some products, such as the Monthly Energy Review diskettes, arrive with instructions that are adequately written but which are in a physical format that is difficult to manage (photocopied pages stapled together). LPS obtains and distributes paper copies of all diskette and CD-ROM documentation which becomes available.

Libraries may manage documentation in a variety of ways, but the bottom line is that libraries must ensure that patrons wishing to use the electronic product have access to the documentation. For example, one library may print documentation from a CD-ROM and house the printout near the workstation on which the electronic product will be used. Another library may make a word processing software available on a CD workstation so that the patron can read the documentation directly from the CD. In both cases the documentation is available.

Decisions regarding the housing of documentation for electronic products will vary among depositories. Generally speaking, documentation for potential high use electronic products should be nearby for patrons using the products. Documentation for seldom used products may be shelved in the regular stacks with appropriate cross referencing.

D. Bibliographic Access

Efforts should be made to increase the visibility of electronic depository materials, preferably through computerized library catalogs. Other options, such as documents department shelflists and item card catalogs, are viable alternatives. Cataloging records for most depository electronic products will be available through the Monthly Catalog. Electronic Monthly Catalog records are available from RLIN and OCLC, and from various vendors of CD-ROM or magnetic tape versions of the Monthly Catalog.

However, many libraries may wish to provide greater access to these materials than is generally provided through Monthly Catalog records. Implementing the following suggestions should result in increased staff and public awareness of electronic depository products.

Staff should regularly be updated on what information is available as new products arrive. Promotional information regarding the information resources should be disseminated to the public. In-house files or databases describing the electronic products may be developed.

As electronic products proliferate, Government and commercial indexes to Federal publications should provide more in-depth indexing to electronic depository materials than is available in Monthly Catalog records.

.E. Statistics

All depository libraries should count the number of electronic products they receive. Libraries may decide to keep a tally on how many products are strictly datafiles, how many are datafiles with front-end software for accessing or manipulating the datafile, and how many are strictly application software.

Examples of these various types are: Current Population Survey, a CD that contains only data; National Trade Data Bank (NTDB), a CD that contains datafiles, but which also has software with which to search, retrieve, and manipulate the datafiles; and Epi-Info, a statistical package designed to manipulate user-generated datafiles.Libraries may also wish to keep track of how many individual series titles they receive and of how many diskettes are received for each title. For example, depositories can select the Monthly Energy Review on diskette, which is one title but is received as a monthly publication on multiple diskettes which cumulate throughout the year.

The primary reason for counting these items in various categories is that most libraries generate statistical reports for one or more national organizations (including the U.S. Department of Education) that request such statistical information from their constituents.

F. Disposal Rules regarding disposal of electronic products are identical to rules pertaining to all depository materials, i.e. they may be disposed of 5 years from the date of receipt, or when superseded. As with other formats, the decision to discard should not be taken lightly, even when within depository guidelines. Electronic products that supersede earlier editions should be treated identically to paper or fiche products that supersede. Many libraries may decide not to dispose of earlier editions.

Decisions to dispose of electronic products in favor of fiche or paper copies should be considered very carefully. Electronic versions of most products will generally have characteristics such as full text searching and electronic exportability that are not available in paper or microfiche formats..

Section 3
Hardware and Software

Recommended minimum standards for depository library acquisition of computer hardware and software are given below. These standards were revised in August 1993 and published in Administrative Notes, vol. 14, no. 19 (9/15/93). Future revisions will also appear in Administrative Notes.

Even though these are recommendations, rather than requirements, LPS strongly encourages depositories to install microcomputer workstations that meet at least these minimum standards. Meeting these standards will allow depositories to provide access to the electronic products distributed through the Federal Depository Library Program.

A. Recommended Minimum Technical Guidelines for Federal Depository Libraries [Note: click here for latest update]

1. Minimum Workstation Configuration


IBM compatible 486DX computer operating at 33Mhz


8 or more megabytes of RAM; expandable to 16 Meg or more

Floppy Disks
Both 3.5" high density and 5.25" high density

Hard Disk Drive

160 to 350 megabyte capacity; 15ms or less access time; IDE or SCSI interface


Minimum of three free expansion bus board slots; 1 or more additional hard drive bay(s) desirable; 2 serial ports and 1 parallel port; consider an available ZIF (zero insertion force) CPU upgrade socket


Super VGA compatible, 15" monitor with at least 70Mhz vertical refresh rate at super VGA resolution (800X600) non-interlaced, 0.32 or smaller Dot Pitch; display card which supports 800X600 resolution at 70Mhz or faster

CD-ROM Drive

Single or multiple platter drive compatible with ISO 9660 standard; consider the Multi-Media supporting standards [300 K/byte per second transfer rate, double speed support, CD-ROM XA support, include a 16 bit sound board for PC (Ad-Lib or Sound Blaster compatible)]


24 pin dot matrix; Epson or IBM Proprinter emulation compatible. Consider purchase of low cost color dot matrix printers for Multi-Media output or low cost laser printers for high resolution graphics (HP compatible).

Pointing Device

Microsoft compatible mouse or similar pointing device to support programs and Microsoft Windows


9600 Bps, meeting V.32, V.42, V.42bis or MNP 5 standards and compatible with Hayes "AT" command set.

2. Software

Operating System Software

MS-DOS 5.0 or later; Device driver for CD-ROM drive and MS-DOS CD-ROM extensions. Consideration should be given to the purchase of Microsoft Windows 3.1 environment since many programs now require it.

Database Software

dBASE file format compatible or dBASE and ASCII comma delimited file importing Database Management Software; useful to have fixed field format (SDF) importation ability as well.

Spreadsheet Software

Lotus .WK1 file format compatible software; support for other popular formats such as Excel and Quatro Pro useful as well. Word Processing Software Software capable of importing major text file formats (Ami Pro, WordPerfect 5.1, Microsoft Word, Multimate etc.) and plain ASCII text files. Communications Software Software package which offers "script" files to automate log-on procedures; and supports XMODEM and YMODEM file transfer protocols (ZMODEM and Kermit also desirable); several terminal emulations such as ANSI-BBS, TTY, VT-100; and 19200 bps transfer speeds; supports Hayes "AT" compatible modems..

3. Costs

Equipment Cost Range

Computer $1,700 - $2,600

CD-ROM $300 - $800

Printer $200 - $1000

Modem $250 - $600

Software $900 - $1,500

4. Rationale

The above configuration provides ample resources to handle multiple software and CD-ROM retrieval packages, yet is available at a reasonable cost. Current 486DX prices are only slightly higher than for the 486SX or 386DX computers. The ability to run 32 bit specific software in a graphical environment is desirable. Selection of the high end options mentioned in these specifications will help to delay the onset of obsolescence. The available system memory can be better utilized by a variety of software. The software recommendations should permit the use of most anticipated Government produced products. Microsoft Windows 3.1 software is also easily supported by this configuration. Availability of both common floppy disk formats would accommodate all distributed disk formats and prevent unnecessary disk-to-disk transfers.

While this configuration should prove satisfactory, it in no way suggests that a configuration superior to this should not be considered if affordable. The speed at which the computer industry changes dictates that flexibility is a desirable quality in any hardware and software purchases. Systems which are more than adequate today are obsolete tomorrow.

B. Software Selection

Discussion of software in this section focuses on off-the-shelf software packages which are designed for generic use with data or text files. When possible, libraries should make these types of software available to provide patrons the ability to access and manipulate electronic files beyond the capabilities provided with the files. (Custom designed software devised for use with specific data or text files -- such as the Census EXTRACT software -- is addressed in the section on microcomputer workstation management).

In deciding which particular software to acquire librarians should consider:

1) what software will be useful in manipulation of the electronic products that are selected,

2) what software patrons will want or expect you to have, and

3) what software the library can support (purchase cost, staffing, and equipment).

A further consideration is the philosophical question of whether or not to provide software you can afford to purchase but for which you cannot provide technical assistance. This question is dealt with in the section on levels of reference service.

A significant consideration that should be addressed in purchasing software is whether the software product can use or import data or text files in other formats. Federal information on CD-ROMs and diskettes has to date generally been stored in dBASE, LOTUS, and ASCII formats. .

When purchasing software, keep in mind that software which can use other file formats directly is preferable to software that must convert the files to its own format--although both are preferable to software that can neither use nor convert. This is particularly true for large data files. For example, dBASE and dBASE clones can directly access all Census CD-ROMs. Database software that must convert the data from dBASE to their native formats are less tenable in the library reference setting because the conversion can literally take hours depending upon the size of the data file being converted. A corollary consideration is the ability of software to export and print data. Many patrons who use electronic data will be interested in taking information home in an electronic format. Software that can download in various formats (ASCII, dBASE, LOTUS) provides flexibility.

Another question to consider in selecting software is whether the software is compatible with the library's equipment. Most advertisements for software will identify potential compatibility problems. Librarians should not, for example, purchase software advertised for a MicroSoft Windows environment if their equipment does not support Windows. A less obvious example would be the purchase of software requiring VGA graphics capabilities by a library having only EGA capabilities..

The best bet in selecting software is to shop around, and to consult with friends and colleagues who have more experience with microcomputing. There are many magazines (such as PC Magazine and InfoWorld) that have comparative reviews of software and that have hundreds of advertisements either by companies selling their own software, or by jobbers selling a variety of software. Software/ hardware catalogs, such as Computer Shopper, are also helpful in selecting software.

An important option that should be considered is shareware. Shareware is much less expensive than most brand name software packages, and often provides most of the software power and flexibility that would be desired in a depository library. Furthermore, most shareware can be acquired and tested for a relatively small charge (often $5.00) without additional licensing fees if it is decided not to use the product. Several catalogs advertise shareware, including Public Brand Software.

A further option which librarians should consider is software they have received or may receive from the Federal government. To date the only software that falls within this scope is Epi Info, distributed to depository libraries by the Centers for Disease Control. Epi Info is very powerful, flexible, and easy to use, and it can be given away freely to library patrons. Epi Info has a very powerful word processor, a database manager, and a statistical package. It can use dBASE files directly, and can import various other formats including ASCII and comma delimited files..

C. Hard Disk Management

One of the more involved aspects of dealing with information in electronic formats is managing software on the microcomputer. This section provides a general overview of considerations librarians should make when setting up their hard drives. This manual cannot serve as a DOS training manual. However, it must be noted that a considerable knowledge of DOS is desirable for those managing the electronic products currently being received as depository items. DOS tips are available in DOS manuals that accompany most equipment purchases, and in a variety of commercially produced manuals.

As a rule of thumb, hard disks will be divided into a series of directories: one directory for each software package that is loaded onto the workstation. Word processing software should be placed in a directory separate from the dBASE or EXTRACT directories. Each piece of software accompanying a CD-ROM or data diskette should likewise be loaded to its own directory. A list of directories contained on a depository library computer may resemble the following PATH listing:

Directory PATH listing
Volume Serial Number is 3563-15E4

Many of the directory names, such as REIS, readily identify the software contained therein. REIS, for example, is the directory for the Regional Economic Information System CD-ROM. EPI5 is the directory for the Epi Info program. Other directory names, such as HMCM, may be less obvious. For this reason, librarians responsible for managing hard disks may wish to document the directory locations for each workstation. One simple method is to print the directory PATH listing (as above) each time a directory is added to a system, then annotate the PATH listing to identify what software is in which directory. Print copies of PATH listings can easily be generated by using the DOS command C:\PATH>PRN. For an example of a more elaborate system for documenting depository data and text files see Administrative Notes, vol. 13, no. 2, 1/15/92.

On microcomputer workstations that contain more than one electronic product, it is usually desirable to list available files on a front end menu and to arrange the menu so that files can be booted directly from the menu. Menu software is readily available. In fact, some newer DOS versions provide menu software as part of the DOS package, and shareware distributors are also an excellent source.

Libraries having telecommunications capabilities can also download several menu programs from the Census Bulletin Board.

Librarians with basic DOS skills will find it relatively easy to write simple but adequate menus using DOS commands in batch files. The bottom line is that in making files easier to locate, menus make reference services for electronic products easier to provide.

Installing software that accompanies CD and diskette products is usually a relatively simple task. However, finding the software may often be difficult. Software may be located on the CD-ROM, or on accompanying diskettes.

In the event that instructions do not accompany a product, look for instructions located in a READ ME file (sometimes README DOC or README). README files, which may be on a CD or on accompanying diskettes, usually provide basic instructions for loading and operating the product.

For that small number of CD products which has no front-end software, such as the Current Population Survey, libraries must either procure software that can manipulate the files, upload the files to a mainframe for manipulation, store the CD off-site at a location where manipulation is possible, or circulate the CD to patrons who can manipulate the data elsewhere. Sources of advice on how to deal with CDs that do not have software are the "Electronic Corner" in Administrative Notes, the Internet's GovDoc-L, agency support staff, and your local regional librarian.

Though most software specifically designed for Federal products and generated by Federal agencies has to date been distributed by GPO either on diskettes or as separate files on CD-ROMs, software for some products is available from other sources. The State Data Center Bulletin Board, for example, has posted for downloading all current EXTRACT and PROFILE software to be used with Census CDs. Furthermore, several private software vendors are marketing software that can be used with various Federal CD-ROM and diskette products. These vendors advertise regularly in Documents to the People and other documents-oriented periodicals.

A final note on managing hard drives is that when new issues of a CD or diskette title arrive, such as a new issue of NTDB, the person responsible for loading the product should boot the product to make sure that it is functional and to check that the software in use for the last volume still works on the new CD. Most Federal agencies provide phone numbers for technical assistance on their electronic products.

D. Workstation Management

The Government Publications Department at the University of Nevada, Reno, has six census products available for end user access on an EPSON Equity III Plus (286 chip) microcomputer workstation in the department's reference area. The six census CDs are loaded in a Pioneer CD drive six-disc cartridge which is swapped out with a six-disc cartridge loaded with four CIS CDs, PAIS, and the Readex Corporation's United Nations Index. All CD products are itemized on a front end menu and are executed through batch files that boot the selected product's software. For several products, the software is loaded on the workstation's hard drive; for others, the software is run directly from the CD. The EPSON has a 5 1/4" floppy drive for downloading data and is hooked up to a Citizen dot matrix printer.

The six census products are:

the 1987 Economic Census (Disc 1C)
the 1987 Economic Census by Zip Code (Disc 2A)
the 1988 County and City Data Book
the 1987-88 County Business Patterns
Foreign Trade Data, and Public Law 94-171
Census of Population and Housing.

Three types of software are used to access the data on these products: Census Windows software is comprised of several separate programs that look very much alike and work similarly. Census first released a simple, easy-to-use pop-up Windows software with Census Test Disc No. 1 in 1988. Until release of Foreign Trade Data (FTD), on CD in 1990, however, the Windows software had such limited capabilities that it was for the most part useless.

An updated version of Census Windows released with the FTD CD, on the other hand, included several improvements over earlier versions that added some flexibility and power, including download options. Its usefulness, however, remained marginal.

With release of the PL 94-171/ Census CD in 1991, the Windows software became a viable product. Users can easily identify data they seek, then display, print or download the data (in ASCII delimited, or dBASE). The Windows software for County Business Patterns has similar capabilities to the PL 94-171 software and is equally easy to use.

The key to the recent releases of Census Windows software is that they are both "useful" and "usable." Patrons can generally get what they want with little need for reference assistance. The major shortfall of Census Windows in terms of "usability" is that display, print, and download of data are limited to data for one geographic location per retrieval. This is acceptable for those who need data on only one city, county, voting district, etc. Perhaps it is acceptable even to those researching only three or four counties. However, Windows is of little use to patrons pursuing customized data for multiple geographic units.

EXTRACT, also a Bureau of the Census product, is specifically intended to provide census data users with a relatively easy interface with which to create customized subsets of census data from a CD-ROM. Using EXTRACT, patrons can quickly generate tables which they can display to screen, print, or save to diskette in dBASE, comma delimited, or fixed format. The utility of EXTRACT is that users can select columns (variables/ characteristics) and rows (records/cases) from traditional Census data to create their own tables.Users familiar with database or spreadsheet software can EXTRACT data from several CDs to create custom designed tables.

Users preferring word processing software can save tables in straight ASCII for importation into text documents. The main limitation of EXTRACT is that it is intended only to perform these transfer functions. There are no significant data manipulation capabilities other than the functions needed to create subsets of data for downloading or printing.

Programming bugs limit the viability of EXTRACT. Some EXTRACT routines dump the user back to DOS or freeze the system. In some cases, users are allowed to select options that take so much time that it is unclear whether the program is still running or is in a loop. This is particularly true when using EXTRACT with the FTD CDs. Bugs or glitches that are consistent can be identified and worked around. Bugs that seem to arise out of nowhere are unfriendly. EXTRACT appears to be most effective on the PL 94-171, County and City Data Book, and County Business Patterns CDs.

EXTRACT is definitely "useful" to library patrons. In libraries that house Census CDs, library users should expect to be furnished the level of access that EXTRACT provides. Without EXTRACT, the "usefulness" of Census CDs is too limited. Because EXTRACT is relatively easy to learn without extensive intermediation by library staff, EXTRACT is useful to patrons and staff. Most staff members can acquire a high level of competency on EXTRACT with only a few hours of training, and, for the most part, need spend only ten to twenty minutes to get patrons up to speed on the software. Libraries with telecommunications capabilities can download EXTRACT from the Census Bulletin Board.

In the Government Publications Department, University of Nevada, Reno, Census CDs are also accessible through a dBASE clone. All data on Census discs is stored in dBASE format, as dBASE provides users with considerable computing power for manipulating and transferring Census data. However, dBASE is "useful" and "usable" only to those who have dBASE experience.

dBASE requires substantial training and practice to master even simple functions. Most patrons do not know dBASE, and librarians cannot be expected to provide the extensive training necessary to introduce patrons to the software. Most patrons would have neither the time nor patience to learn dBASE, particularly those patrons seeking only a small amount of information. Therefore, to most patrons, dBASE is not "usable" in the library reference setting. The only other option -- training staff in dBASE in order to generate subsets of Census data on call -- is also not practical in the reference setting. At best, it may be expected that one or two staff members could provide this service on an appointment basis, much like that provided for on-line searching..

Section 4
Electronic Bulletin Boards and Other Remote On-line Systems

Electronic bulletin boards (EBBs) are becoming increasingly important for accessing Federal information in electronic formats. One list published in March 1991 identified 47 EBBs supported by Federal agencies. Files contained on these boards range from full text electronic versions of agency press releases and employment opportunities, to extensive data and test files in dBASE, LOTUS, and ASCII formats. Though only the GPO's Federal Bulletin Board is currently part of the Federal Depository Library Program, depository librarians should be aware of the tremendous potential that EBBs and other remote Federal agency on-line systems represent. This section suggests methods for locating Federal EBBs and discusses some policy questions regarding exploitation of these systems.

There is currently no single directory or source that comes even close to identifying all available electronic bulletin boards and other on-line systems. Several attempts have been made to identify specific subsets of on-line systems, such as the listing which may be downloaded from the Census Bureau's State Data Center Bulletin Board. However, such attempts generally unearth only the most visible systems.

Currently, the best method for identifying other EBBs is through lists of EBBs available on existing EBBs. Newsletters published by agencies and interest groups are another source of possible EBBs listings. They occasionally list EBBs identified as useful or of interest to the organization.

Libraries must establish their individual policies and practices regarding use of EBBs and remote databases, much as they have regarding access to electronic files available through private sector vendors. It is suggested, however, that even small amounts of time and expense on EBBs and other systems can significantly enhance patron access to Federal information. For example, a ten minute phone connection to the Commerce Department's Economic Bulletin Board (EBB) is sufficient for downloading current detailed Consumer Price Index information at least two months before libraries receive their depository copies of the CPI Detailed Report. The same general time frame is true for several other files posted to the EBB, such as the quarterly Gross Domestic Product statistics.

Other information, including TOP Bulletins, is available on the EBB but is not distributed to depository libraries. Other non-depository items available via EBBs include press releases from the Departments of Labor and Education.

At this time most Federal EBBs are free from charges other than telecommunication costs. A notable exception is the Economic Bulletin Board, for which there is a small registration fee and a small per hour use fee. Much of the financial information available on the Economic Bulletin Board is freely available (except for phone lines) from a Federal Reserve Bank EBB.

How libraries will use remote electronic data sources will vary according to the content of each system and the needs of each library. Most libraries should set up a plan to log into the GPO's Federal Bulletin Board once each week to check for new files or messages pertaining to depository library administration.

Many, though not all, libraries will also establish policies regarding access to the Supreme Court Cases available for a fee on the Federal Bulletin Board. Libraries with significant capacity for storing electronic information may decide to download recent cases. Others will access the Federal Bulletin Board Supreme Court files only as user demand arises. Each library will have to establish whether all or only some of their staff will access these files, and similar files on other remote systems. (Instructions for signing onto the Federal Bulletin Board can be found in Administrative Notes, vol. 13, no. 18, 9/15/92.)

Several Federal agencies also allow dial in access to various datafiles they post to agency computers. For example, the Census Bureau allows free access (other than telecommunications costs) to current and historic Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) files. The EPA maintains a publicly accessible bibliographic database of the holdings of EPA regional libraries. Free access is also available to various U.S. Geological Survey and Department of Agriculture data systems. Libraries can request access to the Soil Conservation Service's "Snow Survey and Water Supply Products" database. Two sources that can be used to identify other similar systems are NTIS' Directory of Computerized Data Files (C 51.11/2-2:year) and the privately published Federal Database Finder: A Directory of Free and Fee-Based Databases & Files Available from the Federal Government (Chevy Chase, Maryland: Information USA)..

Section 5
Reference Service and Policies for Electronic Publications

The recent influx of electronic publications into depository libraries withouthas created something of a management nightmare. Immediate logistical problems, such as acquiring equipment upon which to operate these new products, have plagued some librarians. A more universal problem, however, has been the lack of established policies that define how electronic publications fit into depository library operations.

Without definite policies, the documents department staff will experience significant stress generated by the uncertainties of functioning in a new work environment. In particular, policies must be established that define for staff members precisely what level of reference service they are expected to provide to library patrons on electronic products. Once such policies have been clearly established, the staff must be trained to provide that service.

To cope with electronic publications, many depository librarians have initiated a simple unwritten policy: ignore them, find a deep drawer, don't even load them on microcomputer workstations. At the other extreme, some libraries have attempted to provide intensive service wherein library staff have used dBASE or other database software to generate customized tables for patrons. While many librarians will entertain ethical objections to the first tactic, few will have adequate staff to even consider the second.

Government publications departments should try to identify a middle ground between these extremes. A written policy that identifies the three levels of access to all electronic information products housed in the department, whether the products are depository, non-depository, or commercial, should be established. The policy should delineate which of the three levels of service the staff is expected to provide, and, by default, define what level of competency is expected of patrons. In the following, the Bureau of the Census CD products are used to demonstrate a specific application of such a policy now in force at the University of Nevada (Reno).

Access Policy for Electronic Publications

It is expected that all Government Publications Department (GPD) reference personnel will have a "thorough knowledge" of electronic bibliographic tools in the GPD reference area. "Thorough knowledge" is defined as competency in using these tools and the ability to introduce patrons to their use. The electronic tools currently included in this category are IMPACT ( Monthly Catalog), the United Nations Index, and all CIS and CASSIS indexes.

"Thorough knowledge" will also apply to some specific electronic publications and databases distributed through the Federal Depository Library Program. In this case, "thorough knowledge" is defined as the competency to instruct users in the major software features available in each product. Products that fall into this category are the Public Law 94-171, Census of Population and Housing, and Foreign Trade Data (Exports and Imports) when operated under the Census Windows (GO) software.

It is expected that all GPD reference personnel will have more "general knowledge" of the availability of electronic databases that are not bibliographic in nature. "General knowledge" is defined as knowing what electronic products are available in the Department, and the ability to identify for patrons databases that may be appropriate for their research needs. "General knowledge" may also be expected on specific products of software. At this time, "general knowledge" of software is limited to EXTRACT. "General knowledge" of CD products is limited to the Congressional Record and the National Trade Data Bank.

GPD reference staff are expected to have a "rudimentary knowledge" regarding use of all non-bibliographic electronic information products not listed above. "Rudimentary knowledge" is defined as knowing where the product and its documentation are located, knowing which micro workstation to use, knowing how to boot the product, and knowing how to exit from the product. The intentional implication of this policy is that patrons, not library staff, are responsible for providing levels of competency in manipulating GPD electronic information products.

Each depository library should develop policies relating to these issues, specific to the depository's local situation and needs.

The level of reference service Government Publications Department staff are expected to provide on Census Windows, EXTRACT, and dBASE is easily discerned in the context of the department's electronic reference service policy. Government Publications Department staff are clearly expected to have "thorough knowledge" of the Census Windows software and to be able to provide service on all Windows functions. This is completely reasonable given that the Windows are so easy to use and that staff training takes very little time. In fact, most patrons need little or no assistance once the Windows are booted.

At the other extreme, the Government Publications Department staff are not expected to know dBASE. As the policy indicates, they are expected only to have a "rudimentary knowledge" of dBASE. That is, they must assist patrons in identifying appropriate data sets (CDs), then be able to load and boot the disc. They will also be expected to know where the documentation is, though staff will not be expected to have any degree of competency in using the documentation. That is the responsibility of the patron. Patrons requesting dBASE training will be referred to appropriate sources. Government Publications Department staff who do not wish to learn dBASE have no obligation to learn the software. Staff members who do desire some level of competency in dBASE are encouraged to enroll in mini courses offered through the university's computer services.

Regarding EXTRACT, which provides an intermediate level of access to the Census CDs, it was less readily apparent what level of service the Government Publications Department staff should be expected to provide. The decision that Government Publications Department staff must have a "general knowledge" of EXTRACT (to be able to assist patrons with at least basic EXTRACT functions) was reached in light of the combination of EXTRACT's significant power relative to its ease of use. Furthermore, documentation for EXTRACT is quite good and easy to follow.

Each staff member received about an hour of training on EXTRACT. They were also shown how to use EXTRACT to generate custom designed tables and how to print or download those tables. They were then asked to commit another hour or so to work through a tutorial provided by the Bureau of the Census. Of course, low volume CD use encourages rustiness in EXTRACT skills among the staff. For that reason, a handout has been designed which generally describes EXTRACT and itemizes specific points about each census product that can be accessed through EXTRACT. (The handout, along with some EXTRACT "Tips and Hints," can be found in Administrative Notes, vol. 12, no. 19, 8/31/91.)

The actual reason for requiring staff members to be able to provide a "general knowledge" level of service on EXTRACT is that the Census Windows, though easy and capable of meeting many of the user's needs, is not powerful enough to fill reasonable expectations of library patrons. EXTRACT, which is also relatively easy to learn, does fill those needs. dBASE, on the other hand, is too difficult to expect the staff to master or to expect patrons to learn on the spot. The drawback to EXTRACT--that it has some software flaws which often frustrate both patrons and staff--can only be worked around through handouts that itemize the bugs and through correspondence with the Bureau of the Census.

In setting up policies for service and use of electronic materials, depository libraries must not resort to charging direct user fees to recover their costs. Direct user fees are not consistent with universal free access to Federal information through depository libraries. Indirect fees may be considered, as long as they do not impair free access to Federal information. Such indirect fees may include per page charges for printer paper (akin to photocopying fees) and charges for database searches performed by library staff (akin to on-line searches).

Librarians must avoid fee policies that foster the recent trend toward the establishment of information rich and information poor segments of society that have seemingly risen with the advent of electronic information. This dichotomy has no place in the Federal Depository Library Program, which exists to promote a free and democratic--and informed-- society..

[ Back to the Table of Contents ]

Chapter 5
Bibliographic Control

Section 1. Documentation

A. Procedures Manual

B. Organization of the Collection

C. Item Number Selection

Section 2. Files

A. Item Number Files

1. Inactive or Discontinued Items File
2. Automated Item Number Files
3. Item Surveys and New Item cards
4. Classes Added
5. Updating Information on Item cards
6. Other Uses of Item card Files
7. Other Files

B. Shipping Lists

1. Shipping List Register
2. Map Shipping Lists

Section 3. Technical Processing

A. System and Supplies

B. Shipments
1. Regular Shipments
2. Direct Mail
3. Separate Shipments
.C. Claims
1. Claims Procedure
2. Entire Shipments Not Received
3. GPO Response to Claims
4. Unfilled Claims
5. Processing Incoming Claims

D. Check-in and Shelflist Maintenance
1. Manual Check-in
2. Alternate Check-in with Shipping Lists
3. Automated Check-in

E. Non-Depository Documents
1. Locating a SuDocs Number
2. Assigning a Local SuDocs Number

F. Shelving/Filing

G. Microfiche

H. Electronic Products

I. Maps
1. Selection
2. Housing
3. Classification
4. Processing
5. Check-in

J. Statistics

K. Conclusion . .

Chapter 5 Bibliographic Control

There are two basic requirements in bibliographic control for Federal depository documents. The first requirement is for a piece level record of holdings of material received through the Federal Depository Library Program. The second requirement is for each piece to be uniqely marked to identify it as Federal property received through the Federal Depository Library Program.

This chapter provides basic suggestions and recommendations for the technical processing and statistical record keeping of depository and non-depository documents. This chapter serves as a "how to" manual, based on practices of several depository libraries, and is consistent with the requirements set forth in the Instructions to Depository Libraries.

The suggestions in this chapter represent one way of processing depository materials; libraries may choose to process documents differently. In adopting procedures for handling its depository collection, each library must assess its own situation and decide what will work best. The only rule that must be followed is adherence to GPO regulations set forth in the Instructions.

.Documents as Federal Property

A depository library, in order to meet the requirements of the Instructions to Depository Libraries in providing custody and service, must view the depository publications as Federal property. A depository library takes on the role of a legal custodian of U.S. Government property.

In looking at the role of the depository library from this perspective, the terminology of generally accepted library practices becomes translated into a somewhat different language and takes on a slightly different meaning. Bibliographic control, for instance, becomes equivalent to inventory control of Federal property. Maintenance becomes an issue, not only of preservation of library materials but of the capability of the library to preserve and protect the Federal property in its custody. The primary issue regarding housing of the Federal publications is of the same nature: the conditions in which the Federal property is housed must be adequate to sufficiently preserve and protect the Federal property in the library's custody.

.Section 1 Documentation

A. Procedures Manual

While this chapter provides basic instructions for operating a depository, each depository library should also maintain its own procedures manual, reflecting local decisions and practices. Written instructions and guidelines are important for assuring consistency in the day-to-day operations of the depository and will be helpful to new staff unfamiliar with the documents collection. In developing a manual, the library should take into account staffing, housing arrangements, size of collection, patron demand, bibliographic control, online capabilities, and budget. The procedures manual should be reviewed regularly and updated as necessary to reflect local changes as well as changes made by GPO to the Federal Depository Library Program.

B. Organization of the Collection

The procedures for maintaining government documents in a depository library will depend to a great extent on the way that the documents collection is organized. Most documents collections are organized in one of the following ways:

1) Shelved in a separate section of the library arranged by Superintendent of Documents (SuDocs) classification or other classification system;

2) Classified according to either the Dewey Decimal or Library of Congress classification system and integrated into the library's general collection;

.3) A combination of the two methods above, with part of the collection in a separate documents area and part in the general collection, in other areas of the library or in selective housing sites.

In addition to documenting the organization of the collection, a depository library should have policies and procedures for each of the following functions:

1) collection development;

2) processing, including check-in, preparation, and shelving;

3) preservation and security;

4) bibliographic control and reference service;

5) circulation; and

6) statistics.

In formulating policies and procedures, it is important to keep up with the professional literature, attend meetings and workshops, participate in local library associations and documents groups, and visit other depository libraries. Most documents librarians are eager to meet others in their state or region and are willing to exchange ideas and share expertise and knowledge.

C. Item Number Selection

Item numbers are fundamental to the depository library system. Each item number represents a series or group of related publications issued by a specific Federal agency and available for selection by depository libraries from GPO. Depository libraries should study the needs of their communities and select those items which best meet those needs. GPO has identified 17 major types of publications for distribution through the Federal Depository Library Program:

1) Public notices, such as news releases

2) Handbooks manuals and guides, including technical publications

3) Advisory circulars

4) Directories

5) Proceedings of symposia, workshops, conferences, etc.

6) Forms

7) Maps, atlases, and charts

8) Posters

9) Catalogs and bibliographies

10) Reports

11) Journals, periodicals, and newspapers

12) Environmental impact statements and assessments

13) Legal materials, including laws and decisions

14) Flyers, brochures, booklets, and pamphlets

15) Statistical publications

16) Marketing and promotional pamphlets

17) Monographs

.Publications excluded from the Federal Depository Library Program include:

1 Announcements of job vacancies

2 Memos

3 Federal agencies' directives and notices which implement personnel policies

4 Data input forms

5 Forms used for correspondence

6 Personnel evaluation forms

7 Solicitations

8 Bid invitations

9 Access passes

10 Signs and bumper stickers

11 Working drafts

12 Form letters

13 Certain user manuals for computer programs

14 Agency control forms

For a more detailed explanation of publications available through the Federal Depository Library Program see "Guidelines for the Provision of Government Publications for Depository Library Distribution", Administrative Notes, vol. 11, no. 16, July 31, 1990, pp. 3-18.

Once a year, GPO supplies each depository library with a complete printout listing all item numbers currently available for selection through the Federal Depository Library Program. The item selection update printout is mailed each May and should be reviewed upon receipt for accuracy and possible additions or deletions to the library's selection profile. .

Once selection decisions have been made, the library should mark the printout in accordance with the accompanying instructions and return only the Amendment of Selection postcards (Figure 1) to GPO by the date specified.

GPO implements item changes each October as part of the annual item selection update cycle. Failure to return the Amendment of Selection postcards to GPO by the specified date causes implementation to be postponed until October of the following year.

.In addition to the annual printouts, libraries may also use Amendment of Selection postcards throughout the year to delete item numbers (see Figure 1, below).

Deletions are made within 4-6 weeks after receipt of the postcards by GPO for LPS-distributed material. GPO provides distribution tapes on a quarterly basis to other agencies distributing depository materials. It may take 3 months or more to effect deselections for material distributed by:

microfiche contractors,
the Department of Energy,
the U.S. Geological Survey,
the Defense Mapping Agency.

[Figure 1] .Amendment of Selections Postcard

.Libraries selecting materials should become familiar with the item number system used by GPO in order to make prudent selections. An item number may appear in one of three basic formats:

.1) Number only. For example, item 0254 represents General Publications of the Patent and Trademark Office. The item card for this number would appear as:

. [Figure 2]
Item cards - Number


2) Number-letter. For example, item 0504-E represents Posters from the Centers for Disease Control. The item card for this number would appear as:


[Figure 3]

Item cards - Number-Letter


3) Number-letter-number. For example, item 0188-A-07 represents Annual Reports of the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). The item card for this number would appear as:

. .

[Figure 4]

Item cards - Number-Letter-Number

.The number assigned to a group of publications usually remains the controlling item number for that group regardless of changes in title, issuing agency, SuDocs number, format, or frequency.

Exceptions to this rule include:

1) serials within series which have been resurveyed after reclassifying and;

2) electronic products originally distributed under a "catch all" electronic products item number that are later reassigned to an agency specific item number.

In most cases, an item number corresponds to one or two distinct groups of publications. However, for agencies whose scope and number of publications are limited, one item number may be established to cover all the publications of that agency.

.Whenever possible, GPO assigns new item numbers so that they file with other publications of the same agency; as a result, item numbers have become more complex as they are integrated into existing series of numbers. For series that include separate publications for each state, item numbers are also subdivided geographically, allowing libraries to choose only those publications relevant to their geographical region.

There are several series, such as Congressional hearings, that are distributed to depository libraries in dual format, that is in both paper and microfiche. In these instances, each format has a separate item number and selective depository libraries choose only one format. Regional libraries receive the publication in both formats, but are required to retain only one permanently. With the inclusion of electronic products and services in the Federal Depository Library Program, some titles are being issued in both paper/microfiche and electronic format. Depositories may select both the electronic and paper versions of a title. However, GPO's policy for multiple choice for paper/microfiche and electronic products may change in the future.

.Section 2


A. Item Number Files

A complete set of item cards providing item number, issuing agency, series title, SuDocs classification number, and a brief description of the series is supplied by GPO to each depository library. When available, the frequency of the publication and format (P = paper, MF = microfiche, CD = CD-ROM, etc.) are also given. These cards should be kept in a separate item card file. Maintenance of an item card file is crucial to the selection process for depository libraries. Although regional libraries do not select materials, they should keep an item card file for historical purposes and to assist selective libraries in their region. It is important that each library keep the entire set of item cards and not just cards for item numbers selected. Item card files are used in conjunction with the item selection printout and the Amendment of Selection postcards to note changes in the selection profile. There are several options for maintaining the item card file:

1) Keep the entire file in order by item number, but distinguish in some way items selected from those not selected:

a. For item numbers added or dropped, mark the card with a designation for added or dropped, together with the date.

For example:

A 3/85: (added March 1985)
D 5/93: (dropped May 1993)

b. Use color coded markings to distinguish selected from non-selected item numbers. It is recommended, however, that the date selected or dropped be added to each item card as shown above.

2) Divide the file into two numeric sequences-- selected item numbers in one file and those not selected in the other. Again, dates (selected or dropped) should be noted on the cards.

1. Inactive or Discontinued Items File

A separate file of "Inactive or Discontinued Items" should be maintained for item numbers which have been discontinued. Whenever possible, LPS informs depository libraries when an item number becomes inactive or is discontinued. Notification can be found in the Inactive or Discontinued Items from the 1950 Revision of the Classified List, in Appendix 3 of the List of Classes, in the"Update to the List of Classes" column in Administrative Notes [Note: now in Administrative Notes Technical Supplement], or on the shipping list. In some cases, this information can also be gleaned from the publication, from notification by the issuing agency, or from other bibliographic tools and utilities such as Andriot, CIS, ASI, OCLC and RLIN.

Inactive or discontinued items may be reactivated, and the item card must then be returned to the active file. This file also serves as a historical record of the library's selection profile, which has become particularly important as libraries add machine readable cataloging records for government documents into their local online catalog.

2. Automated Item Number Files

Item number files may also be maintained online. An excellent automated item file is in use at the University of California, Riverside (UCR). The file is in dBASE format and contains over 12,000 current and retrospective item records. Each record contains a number of fields including: title/series, SuDocs number, issuing agency, and item number. All of the fields are indexed. UCR makes this file available to any interested library for a small handling charge. Libraries maintaining and updating their item file online are not required to maintain the paper item card file. For additional information about the file or to receive a sample diskette, contact Margaret Mooney, Documents Librarian, Tomas Rivera Library, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, California 92527.

3. Item Surveys and New Item cards

When a new title or group of publications is made available for selection, LPS sends out a survey, a corresponding set of item cards, and an OCR (optical character recognition) scannable form. Surveys are conducted for:

1) existing publications which are being made available to depository libraries for the first time;

2) truly new publications; and

3) publications which are available under a different item number as a result of reclassification or the dividing of an existing item number.

All selection decisions should be based on needs of the library's user community and its collection development policy, as well as any cooperative housing/selection agreements.

In order to begin receiving new documents with the first distributed copy, the library must respond to the survey within the time period indicated on the survey form.

Failure to respond within the stated time period will delay implementation until the next annual item selection update. If a library does not want to receive any of the offered series it does not need to respond to the survey unless the survey specifically calls for a response.

Each new item card should be marked with the date and an indication of whether or not the item number was selected. Cards should then be filed in a manner consistent with previously described procedures.

4. Classes Added

In order to afford all depositories the opportunity to select new series as they become available, GPO assigns individual item numbers to each series whenever possible. However, when new publications are closely related to those in a series already distributed under an assigned item number, or when the new series consists of a small number of publications, they may simply be added to an existing item number. The rationale for handling new classes in this manner is that so few documents are involved that it does not warrant a new survey. When the material is first distributed, libraries are notified of classes added to existing item numbers by a note on the shipping list. For example:

NOTE: This class (SuDocs no., series title) is added to item (no.)

Libraries already selecting the item number will automatically receive any new publications added to it. Changes should be noted on the appropriate card in the item card file.

.5. Updating Information on the Item Cards

LPS does not send updated item cards for established series when there are changes in title, agency, frequency, classification number, etc. Changes are usually announced in notes on the shipping lists, in Administrative Notes or in the publications themselves. These changes should be noted on the appropriate item cards as soon as they are announced.

When LPS sends the annual customized computer printout of the library's selection profile, it should be checked against the item card file to ascertain whether any cards are missing and to verify that the library and LPS are in agreement as to the library's selections. Replacements for missing item cards may be obtained from nearby depository libraries, from the regional library, or from LPS. Libraries may also make their own item cards by copying the item number information from the Union List of Item Selections which is distributed in microfiche format. If the library's selection profile does not agree with the LPS printout, the library should contact the Shipment Control and Administrative Group, at the Library Programs Service.

6. Other Uses of Item Card Files

As noted above, item card files are used to assist in the selection process, to verify and claim selected items which are not included in the library's depository shipments and to review and compare the library's item selections with the annual item profile printout supplied by LPS. Other uses include:

.1) to serve as a reference tool to verify dates of selection, to find a SuDocs number when an item number is all that is known, or to obtain bibliographic information about a series;

2) to provide information for cooperative item selection agreements between libraries in a region, for union lists, or for other computer products; and

3) to profile the library's documents holdings when contracting with a vendor for the purchase of machine readable cataloging records.

7. Other Files

Some libraries may wish to maintain card files in addition to the shelflist and the item card files. For example, if the library does not have ready access to OCLC or a CD-ROM version of the Monthly Catalog, it may be useful to maintain an alphabetic file for series and individual monographic titles. These should have the title and corresponding SuDocs number(s). This file is helpful for checking in direct mail series as well as being an excellent reference aid when the patron has limited information about a document. Another useful file would be an alphabetical agency file, providing the SuDocs numbers indicating where publications of an agency may be found on the shelf or in the shelflist.

.B. Shipping Lists

The shipping list is an itemized record of the contents of a complete depository shipment. As selective depositories are not allowed to receive materials in "dual format" (both microfiche and paper), only regional depository libraries receive all items on every shipping list. Consequently, selective depositories should check shipping lists against the item card file or computer printout to see if all selected publications have been received. Additional information about depository shipping lists can be found in Chapter 3 and the Exhibits of the Instructions.

1. Shipping List Register

It is important to keep track of all shipping lists received in order to determine if any shipments are missing. One way to do this is to maintain a "shipping list register," with different sequential series for each format; for example, paper documents are numbered Yr.-no.-P (e.g. 93-0001-P, where 93 is the year; 0001, a sequential number, and P indicates paper); microfiche documents, Yr.-no.-M (eg. 93-0001-M); and electronic format, Yr.-no.-E (eg., 93-0001-E). Numbering for each series continues sequentially through the year. Shipping list numbers should be recorded in the register as they are received and missing issues should be claimed.

Depository libraries are not required by LPS to retain copies of old shipping lists; however, as many libraries use them to verify classification numbers, titles, etc., it is recommended that they be kept for at least 6 months. It is also useful to identify a library in the area which maintains a backfile of shipping lists and will supply shipping list information when needed.

.Microfiche shipping lists will be received in either the shipment boxes or in envelopes for those fiche distributed directly from the microfiche contractors.

Each week, LPS supplies the contractors with a range of microfiche shipping list numbers. The list of shipping list numbers is published in Administrative Notes.

The microfiche contractors who mail the microfiche directly to the depository libraries are responsible for converting the source document to microfiche, preparing the microfiche shipping lists, distributing the microfiche to the libraries on a weekly basis, and fulfilling claims.

2. Map Shipping Lists

Both the U.S. Geological Survey and the Defense Mapping Agency distribute maps and shipping lists directly to depository libraries. USGS shipping lists are clearly titled and numbered sequentially for each year. Libraries should keep a log of numbers received in order to identify missing shipments.

DMA uses packing lists of the contents of each shipment. The packing lists should be used for claiming purposes only. There is currently no way to keep a log of these shipments or to determine if an entire shipment is missing.

.Section 3 Technical Processing

Documents selected by a depository are currently sent in one of three ways:

1) Regular Shipments

Most of the documents arrive in standard sized boxes with the library's depository number indicated on the mailing label. The boxes may contain paper, microfiche, and electronic documents. Shipping lists are included in the boxes and the depository library number is handwritten inside the box to help with identification.

2) Direct Mail

Direct mail includes those publications which publishing agencies send directly to depository libraries. They are not distributed in regular depository shipments or listed on shipping lists. The depository library identification number is indicated on the mailing label identifying these direct mail publications as depository material.

3) Separate Shipments

Separate shipments are mailed in containers or envelopes and usually consist of large bound or unbound volumes, microfiche shipments, maps or posters in tubes, oversized items, and slip laws. The shipping list number is printed on the mailing label for identification. Usually, separate shipments are grouped together on separate shipping lists, although from time to time a separate package shipment is listed on a regular shipping list. Shipping lists for separate shipments are included in the boxes with regular shipments.

A. System and Supplies

Before the processing of documents begins, there are several procedures which should be in place. First, it is necessary to set up a method for determining if all items selected have been received. One of the following methods can be used:

1) consult the item card file;

2) consult a list of the item numbers selected (or non-selected if more than 50% is selected);

3) use the latest printout from LPS showing the library's selections updated to reflect recent additions and deletions.

It is also necessary to determine which documents are housed in special locations and to prepare a guide with these special locations and any routing instructions for use in the check-in process. For example: Survey of Current Business (Current issue on display), etc.

A method for keeping statistics should be established so that incoming documents can be counted as they are processed. A simple chart showing receipt date and document count should suffice. For example, some libraries count bound volumes separately from unbound ones. Microfiche are also counted separately as are CD-ROMs. (See previous Biennial Surveys for additional information on statistical record keeping.)

The following supplies are useful for processing documents:

1) Razor knife for opening packages

2) Scissors

3) Felt-tip and ball-point pens (Use acid-free ink.)

4) Pencils (both red and black)

5) Pressure-sensitive blank labels

6) Note pad or 3 x 5 cards or slips

7) Rubber stamp with name of library and/or department, "Depository Document," and a changeable date. (Self-inking, acid-free stamps save time.)

8) Various types of library cards if documents are checked in manually.

Finally, shelves should be set up for sorting incoming mail. Depending upon the bulk of mail the library receives, it may be helpful to have separate shelves for direct mail, separate shipments, and regular shipments, as well as a shelf for other mail. As mail is received it should be sorted and placed on the shelves. Separate shipments can be identified by the shipping list number on the mailing label.

Due to similarities in addresses, depository libraries occasionally receive mail intended for another library. Consequently, mailing labels for all depository receipts should be carefully checked and incorrectly delivered mail should be rerouted as soon as possible. You may either forward the shipment to the appropriate library, absorbing the cost of postage, or you may contact the Claims Section of the Depository Distribution Division to get new labels, and the U.S. Postal Service will bill the Government Printing Office.

B. Shipments

1. Regular Shipments

Regular shipments usually arrive daily and should be processed as soon as possible. LPS guidelines recommend that they be processed, checked in, and ready for use within 10 days of receipt.

1) Open the box carefully so as not to damage any of the contents.

2) Check the depository library number handwritten inside the box to verify the destination. (Doing this cuts down on processing shipments intended for another library and enables LPS to supply the correct label for forwarding misdirected items.)

3) Carefully remove the first shipping list without damaging the order of the documents in the box. Usually, the library's selections are packed next to the corresponding shipping list. There may be one or more shipping lists accompanying the documents in the box depending on the percentage of items the library has selected. The shipment may include paper, microfiche, and electronic products.

(Note: All shipping lists are included in the boxes regardless of whether or not a library has selected any of the items listed on them.)

4) Stamp the date on the top of the shipping list.

5) Match the publication with the appropriate title on the shipping list. Documents are listed on the shipping lists in order by item number, not by SuDocs classification number.

6) Mark the shipping list to indicate publications received. (Use check marks or other notation.)

7) Print the SuDocs number and any special location codes on the cover or inside the cover of the document if it is a bound volume. If the document cover is very dark or very glossy, place a label on the document and print the number on the label. Be careful not to stamp or mark over any important map, chart, table, or text.

Most depository microfiche have the SuDocs number already on the material, so simply stamp the envelope. For microfiche without SuDocs numbers, print the number carefully in the upper left corner of the microfiche jacket. Use a felt tip pen, as printing with a ball-point pen may damage the microfiche. Keep those microfiche series together that have been shipped in sequence. This will save time in check-in and filing.

Posters or other items which may be used for display should be stamped and the call number printed on the verso.

For bound volumes, inscribe the SuDocs numbers on the spine, either at this point or later as the documents are being checked in. Label only as much information as necessary to differentiate this particular volume from others. For example, most serial type volumes (US Reports, Serial Set etc.) have the volume number/date on the spine. Therefore, it is only necessary to print the "stem" of the SuDocs number, through the colon, on the spine label.

Titles that are issued in looseleaf format may arrive stapled together or wrapped in cellophane. The library should provide binders for looseleaf items without binders. Other items may be tied with string or library tape or fastened together with brads or fasteners.

8) Stamp each document with either the date of receipt or the date of the shipping list, depending on the library policy.

Stamp the depository identification on each document.

9) Check for missing items according to the method set up earlier. Transfer, or flag for transferring later, information regarding classes added, corrected items, or other special notes to the item card file.

10) Items in the box, but not on the shipping list, should be processed and routed appropriately. These include issues of Administrative Notes, Publications Reference File (PRF), Needs and Offers, etc.

11) Claim missing items, if necessary. (See discussion in following section.)

12) Log the shipping list in the register and file in the shipping list file.

13) Count documents and record on appropriate statistics chart.

14) Affix any other ownership stamps, bookplates, theft detection devices, etc., as required by the library.

15) Place processed items in designated location for check-in or cataloging.

2. Direct Mail

Direct mail should be processed as soon as possible as most of it is time sensitive.

1) Print the SuDocs number and any special location codes in the upper left corner of each document. It is helpful to keep a list of direct mail items with their corresponding SuDocs numbers and special locations at hand.

2) Stamp the cover of each piece with the current date and the depository identification stamp.

3) Place security tags in publications whenever possible. (With one-page data sheets such as Daily Treasury Statements, this may be difficult. However, depository receipts should be secured in the same manner as other library materials.)

4) Count documents and update the statistics chart.

5) Place the documents in a designated area to be checked in.

(Note: Direct mail should be checked in and made available immediately.)

3. Separate Shipments

Separate shipments packages should be placed on the "Separate Shipments" shelf until the shipping list arrives. When the list arrives, pull the boxes or packages and process as follows:

1) Open packages/boxes carefully, so as not to cut or damage any documents.

2) Stamp the date at the top of the shipping list.

3) Match the publication with the appropriate title on the shipping list. Documents are listed on the shipping lists in order by item number, not by SuDocs classification number.

4) Print the SuDocs number on the cover or inside the cover in the same manner as in no. 7 under Regular Shipments.

5) Mark the shipping list to indicate publications received.

6) Stamp the document with either the date of receipt or the date of the shipping list, depending on library policy.

7) Stamp the depository identification on the document.

8) Check the item list to see if there are any missing packages. If so, file the shipping list in a file folder marked "Separate Shipments" and wait a week or so before claiming. Separate shipment packages sometimes arrive over a period of two weeks or more.

9) If all selected items have arrived, log the shipping list in on the shipping list register and file.

10) Count documents and add to statistics chart.

11) Affix any other identification stamps, bookplates, theft detection devices, etc., as required by the library.

12) Place the processed documents in a designated location for check-in or cataloging.

C. Claims

A claim is a notice which is sent to LPS requesting a selected publication which was not received. Regionals should claim any publications listed on the shipping list and not received. Selectives may claim only those publications which they selected and are listed on the Claims Core List. Direct mail which was not received may also be claimed if it appears on the Claims Core List. The Claims Core List, updated as needed, is printed in Administrative Notes.

Claims may not be made to replace items which are received and later lost. It is also possible to claim for a replacement for defective items or items damaged in shipment. Claims must be made only for those items selected during the effective time period which is indicated on the shipping list. For the rules regarding claims, see Chapter 3 of the Instructions to Depository Libraries and Administrative Notes, vol. 4, no. 5, Feb. 28, 1993, pp. 1-5.

As claims policies and procedures change from time to time, it is suggested that a folder marked "Claims" be kept to record the latest instructions for processing claims.

. 1. Claims Procedure

When a selected item is listed on a regular or separate shipping list and is not received, and it appears on the LPS Claims Core List or is shipped by a microfiche contractor, it must be claimed. After verifying that the library should have received the item, use the following procedure to file for claims:

1) Circle both the SuDocs number and item number of the missing publication(s).

2) Photocopy the shipping list in question.

3) In the return address section of the shipping list fill in the depository number, shipping list number, and stamp or type the library name and address.

4) Mail the photocopy of the shipping list to the address printed on the form.

5) Write "Claimed date" on the original copy of the shipping list and file it in the "Claims" folder.

It is possible to send claims to GPO via fax. The fax number is: (202) 512-1429. The following chart shows the calling times specified for each time zone, and, in parentheses, the corresponding time the calls will be received by GPO:

8:00 - 11:00 a.m. (11:00 a.m.-2:00 p.m.)

1:00 - 4:00 p.m. (2:00 - 6:00 p.m.)

8:00 - 11:00 a.m. (8:00 - 11:00 a.m.)

Claims may also be faxed in before 8:00 a.m. and after 5:00 p.m., Eastern time, by libraries in any time zone.

Claims for direct mail items from the LPS Claims Core List should be submitted using the Depository Library Inquiry Form (Form 3794). Completed forms (see Figure 5) may be either mailed or faxed to GPO. The mailing address is provided on the form, while the telefax number is (202) 512-1636.

Claims for microfiche shipped directly from the contractor must be made to the contractor, not to LPS. Claims must be mailed directly to the address at the bottom of the shipping lists within 60 calendar days of receipt of shipments. Invalid claims will be researched by the contractor and returned to the library. LPS supplies a computer tape containing the item numbers and corresponding item selections generated from the Depository Distribution Information System (DDIS). The contractor uses this tape for both microfiche distribution and verification of claims.

2. Entire Shipments Not Received

Check the shipping list register for any missing shipping list numbers. Contact the regional or other nearby depository to get a copy of the missing shipping list. If none of these libraries has received the shipping list, then contact the Library Programs Service. When the copy is received, check to see which item numbers should have been received. Publications selected but not received, that are listed on the LPS Claims Core List, are to be claimed. Proceed in accordance with previously described procedures for filing claims.

Hint: If your paper shipping list register shows a gap in numbering, compare the "Box No." on the top left corner of the last shipping list received before the gap with the "Box No." on the first shipping list after the gap. If there is a gap in box numbers as well, then you have a problem. If no gap in the "Box No." exists, then you can expect the missing shipping lists to be surveys, separates, or some other kind of irregular shipment. .[Figure 5] Claim for Direct Mail - Depository Library Inquiry Form. 3. GPO Response to Claims

LPS reserves 17 copies of paper, microfiche, and electronic products to fill claims from the LPS Claims Core List. When the supply runs out, claims are returned marked "Exhausted." The sooner a claim is filed, the better chance of obtaining a copy. In responding to claims, LPS includes the claim in a regular shipment box. If a library claims an item which it has not selected, LPS notifies it of the error.

4. Unfilled Claims

When GPO cannot supply a claimed item, proceed as follows:

1) Pull the original shipping list from the "Claims" folder.

2) Staple the LPS response to it and file it in the shipping list file.

3) Try to obtain needed publications from other sources:

a. Contact the regional library or other depository library to get a copy for photocopying;

b. Purchase from GPO if it is a sales item;

c. Contact the issuing agency, Congressional office, or other source to see if a copy is available.

4) If none of these methods meets with success, add the publication to a "Needs File." The needs file should be used in conjunction with discard lists from other libraries and the Needs and Offers list.

.5. Processing Incoming Claims

If the claimed publication is received from GPO (or from another source), pull the original shipping list from the "Claims" folder, mark the List "Received [date]," process the document in the manner described earlier, and file the shipping list.

D. Check-in and Shelflist Maintenance

Each depository library is required to maintain piece level check-in records for depository receipts. These records should be maintained in a card file arranged by SuDocs number or in an online catalog. Records should contain SuDocs number, title, holdings, format, and location. Records for documents issued in microfiche or in electronic format should be clearly marked as such for ease of retrieval.

Any changes in title or call number should be clearly cross referenced on the record with "for earlier see" and "for later see" notations. Additionally, other information pertaining to the publication such as discard dates (where applicable), special guidelines for retention from the Superseded List (e.g. "Keep latest edition only," "Keep current year plus previous year") and special locations (e.g. "Shelved behind Reference Desk," "Science Library," "At Bindery") should be clearly and consistently noted.

.1. Manual Check-in

Depository libraries should construct their shelflist in a manner that is most convenient and useful for their particular situation. However, it is imperative that the shelflist be accurate and up-to-date. Manual check-in should be done on cards designed especially for maintenance of library records; 3x5 cards continue to offer the greatest flexibility. Plain cards are used for monographs. Pre-printed cards, available from most vendors of library supplies, can be used to record numbered or dated series.

Documents may be checked directly into the shelflist following the procedures described below:

1) Take the document to the shelflist and locate the card in the shelflist that corresponds to the document number, title, etc.

.2) Mark the shelflist card to indicate receipt and format of the new issue. For example, use a check to indicate paper copy, MF for microfiche and D for a floppy diskette. If the document was received in more than one format, receipt of all copies should be clearly marked on the card.

If the document has already been checked in, the document in hand is a second copy (unless it is in a different format).

Indicate c.2 in the appropriate place. Make a notation on the document to indicate that it is a second copy. Publications received from agencies and other sources through the mail frequently are second copies. If a second copy is not desired, the non-depository copy may be offered to other libraries.

3) Figures 6 through 9 represent sample check-in cards for serials making use of pre-printed cards:

. [Figure 6]

Figure 6 illustrates a typical card used for checking in monthly or quarterly publications such as Monthly Labor Review or EPA Journal..

[Figure 7]

The card illustrated by Figure 7 is used for checking in daily publications such as Commerce Business Daily.

[Figure 8]

The card in Figure 8 is used for checking in numbered series such as the Congressional Record or the Federal Register.


[Figure 9]

Figure 9 illustrates a card for checking in annual publications such as Smithsonian Year.

4) Titles which cannot be checked in on existing cards will need to have cards typed for them. Most Cuttered monographs fall into this category. (There are currently several vendors that supply commercially produced shelflist cards. Libraries typing a large number of cards may want to explore the various services offered by these vendors.)

.5) Place the documents which need cards in a special area, awaiting the new cards. Cards should be typed as soon as possible to get the documents on the shelves quickly and to avoid backlogs.

6) Figures 10 through 13 represent various options for checking in monographic receipts on plain cards. .

[Figure 10]

[Figure 11]

[Figure 12]

[Figure 13]

7) Once documents have been checked in or have cards typed for them, they are ready to be shelved.

a) Union Lists

If documents are not listed in the library's card or online catalog, it would improve access to enter serial titles in the library's serial list or union list. Serials should be checked in on the documents shelflist, but it is permissible to limit check-in to the library's serial records. The shelflist should be marked to indicate any special treatment for serial titles.

2. Alternate Check-in with Shipping Lists

An alternative way to check-in documents is from the shipping list rather than from the piece itself. This will assure that documents reach the shelves in a timely way and are not stalled in backlogs. That procedure is as follows:

1) Once the documents have been lettered, stamped, etc., they can be shelved.

2) The shipping list is not filed, but is taken to the shelflist and used to check-in those documents which have been checked off as having been received. The shelflist is marked as in steps 2 and 3 above. As each piece is checked in, a notation is made on the shipping list to indicate that it has been checked in.

.If there is no card in the shelflist, a notation is made on the shipping list and it is set aside for the card typing step. If the document is a second copy, both will need to be retrieved from the stacks and so marked. Again, delays should be avoided in order to get the record in the shelflist as soon as possible.

3) Completed shipping lists are filed in the usual manner.

3. Automated Check-in

Depository libraries with appropriate computer technology may want to replace their card shelflist files with automated check-in systems. The same standards for recording and processing documents receipts in a timely manner that apply to manual check-in must also be maintained for automated check-in. Additionally, the library must adhere to regulations in the Instructions for check-in to the piece level.

Two types of automated check-in systems are currently in use: Microcomputer based systems and online catalog integrated systems. Most libraries that have changed from a manual to an automated check-in system have noted a dramatic improvement in their ability to manage the documents collection.

.a) Microcomputer Based Check-in

With a microcomputer based system, documents are checked in on a microcomputer using database management software. Libraries using a microcomputer based check-in procedure report that processing time is reduced and documents become available sooner than with manual check-in. Additionally, access is improved as the database can be duplicated and made available as a reference tool at a number of public service points. Reports on two such methods of automated check-in can be found in the following articles:

Thompson, Ronelle K.H. "Managing a Selective Government Depository Using Microcomputer Technology." College and Research Libraries News, vol. 50, no. 4, April 1989, pp. 260-262.

"Readers Exchange: Automated Documents Check-in Using PC-File:db at Appalachian State University." Administrative Notes, vol. 11, no. 22, October 31, 1990, pp. 3-7.

Figure 14 illustrates a check-in record for a serial using a microcomputer based check-in system.

b) Online Check-in

Online check-in of depository receipts is done in conjunction with an integrated online catalog. Online catalogs offer easy access to materials owned by the library and allow for check-in of both serial and monographic titles. As depository libraries add the GPO/MARC catalog records to their Online Public Access Catalogs (OPACs), online check-in of government publications is becoming more prevalent. In addition to the benefits cited above for microcomputer based check-in, the online catalog with appropriately marked holdings offers bibliographic access to documents on the same level as other materials in the library.

Libraries may acquire GPO created MARC (MAchine Readable Catalog) records for documents in two ways:

1) by using one of the cataloging utilities such as OCLC or RLIN to acquire catalog records for individual documents, or

2) by acquiring the records on tapes from the Library of Congress or from a vendor and batch loading them into their online catalogs.

When individual catalog records are acquired from one of the cataloging utilities, the record serves as an inventory control as it is created from the piece. Once a serial record is entered in the catalog, individual issues may be checked in using the system capabilities for serial control. Holdings for multi-part documents may also be marked on the records.

If a library catalogs only a portion of its receipts in this manner, it must maintain a separate record of receipts (either manual or automated) for those documents not cataloged. Some systems generate a shelflist card for monographs which can be filed and maintained as an additional holdings record. Figure 15 shows a monograph record as it appears in OPAC.

Acquiring tapes from a vendor and batch loading the records into the OPAC may be more cost effective than acquiring individual records from a utility. Vendors can tailor the tapes to match a library's item selection profile; both retrospective and ongoing tapes are available. Libraries with ongoing tape subscriptions receive the tapes at regular intervals, either monthly or biweekly, depending on the vendor. LPS is concerned, however, with the integrity of the holdings records when tapes are batch loaded into a database.

.Although LPS has strongly encouraged the online processing of documents, it is firm in its insistence that online processing conform to GPO's Instructions to Depository Libraries for bibliographic control of depository holdings.

It is not sufficient for a depository library to load a tape containing the GPO records. The tape load should be "tailored to the library's item number profile, checked against actual accessions and coupled with the library continuing to record individual issues of serials received" (Administrative Notes, vol. 11, no. 5, July 15, 1990, pp. 2-3).

.[Figure 14] Serial check-in using Professional File. (courtesy Ronelle K.H. Thompson, Augustana College, Sioux Falls, SD 57197)


[Figure 15] Monographic record as it appears in an integrated online catalog (Unisys-PALS). (Courtesy Ronelle K.H. Thompson, Augustana College, Sioux Falls, SD 57197)

.[Figure 16] Serial check-in using the NOTIS system. (Courtesy Tom Caswell, University of Florida Libraries, Documents Dept., Library West, Gainesville, FL 32611).

[Figure 17] Serial record check-in with INNOVAC Inc. system. (Courtesy Frank Wihbey, Tri-State Documents Depository, Raymond H. Fogler Library, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469)

.[Figure 18] Fugitive Publication Inquiry - Depository Library Inquiry Form.

GPO cataloging tapes which are batch loaded usually contain records of materials which have already been distributed; that is, most documents are received before the bibliographic record appears in the database. When records are batch loaded, there is no way to verify that records in the database match the actual receipts of documents.

As libraries are required to unpack and process documents as they are received ( Instructions, Chapter 3), they must devise a way to check-in documents which meets GPO requirements for bibliographic control. Each library will have to assess its own system capabilities in order to decide how best to record current receipts of those documents for which a full MARC record does not exist at the time of receipt. Some of the options are listed below:

1) Create a provisional record which should contain brief cataloging information: author, title, call number, report number, etc. Holdings can then be attached. (Later this record can be replaced by the full MARC record when it becomes available.)

2) Place documents in a "holding" area which is accessible to the public until the MARC records become available. GPO has said that it is permissible to maintain a temporary holdings record, such as a marked shipping list, for up to three months as a "bridge" until the MARC records are available for marking holdings.

3) Create a brief cataloging record in a separate database that is searchable in several fields. This file may be maintained as a permanent file such as an automated "shelflist" or the records may be deleted when a MARC record and holdings are added to the main database.

.4) Use system capabilities to create a temporary record which can later be linked to the MARC record when it becomes available. Most of the online integrated library systems have capabilities which can be adapted for documents check-in.

For examples of serial check-in records using two different systems, see figures 16 and 17.

Just as general procedures for documents' processing are governed by the library's established policies and practices, so also are procedures for bibliographic control of documents in an online catalog. The most obvious controlling factor is the software system which the library uses. There are a number of systems currently available, each with varying capabilities for performing online functions.

Another factor is where database maintenance takes place. In some libraries, automated check-in and database maintenance are done by the documents staff within the documents department; in others, it may be handled by the cataloging department.

Before a library begins online documents check-in, there are a number of questions which must be addressed. These include whether or not to close the shelflist, what to do about retrospective holdings information, how to check-in documents which arrive before a bibliographic record is available in the database, holdings format, how to manage circulation, and whether to barcode the collection.

. It is well to keep in mind that staff training will be necessary not only for those persons actually working directly with the database, but also for public service staff who must interpret the database for the public.

It is important to have a detailed processing manual that gives step-by-step instructions for the highly technical procedures involved in online processing. Some libraries have already written manuals and may be willing to make these available to other libraries. A library contemplating automating its documents records may want to identify and contact those libraries with common systems. The tape vendors are usually willing to supply the names of these institutions. There are also established "users groups" for various systems and products where users share their experiences and suggestions for enhancements.

E. Non-Depository Documents

1. Locating a SuDocs Number

Most depositories receive documents from sources outside of the depository system. These may come as gifts from patrons, from Congressional offices, mailing lists/subscriptions, or from other libraries. GPO has no official regulation regarding the handling of these materials, so individual libraries may develop individual procedures. Non-depository publications should be placed on a specially marked shelf (e.g. "Agency Supplied" or "Gift") and kept separate from depository shipments. These documents may be handled as follows:

1) Locate the SuDocs classification numbers. Determine if the document is a monograph, a series title, or a serial. Use the sources below to look for numbers. On the cover or a search slip, jot down the sources searched and the date if the number is not located.

a. Andriot's Guide to U.S. Government Publications

b. PRF (Publications Reference File) - Lists current titles not found in other indexes.

c. ASI Index - Statistical publications

d. Monthly Catalog (including CD-ROM versions)

e. OCLC, RLIN, WLN, etc.

f. CIS Index - Congressional publications

g. Cumulative Title Index to U.S. Public Documents (1789-1976)

2) Once a number has been found, write it on the document in the upper left corner. Note special locations in the call number. Double check each piece in the shelflist/online catalog to determine if it is a second copy. If the document is a second copy, indicate as c.2 in the call number. Check the document in on the shelflist or online catalog.

3) Stamp the document with the library ownership stamp (not the depository stamp), place security tag or other special stamps as required by the library. Shelve the document.

4) If a number cannot be located, return the document to the "Non-Depository" shelf. As most non-depository receipts are not immediately classified or cataloged by GPO, procedures should be established to periodically re-search this material.

5) If the SuDocs number cannot be located, fill out the Depository Library Inquiry Form (GPO Form 3794--see Figure 18), and send it, with a photocopy of the cover and/or title page, to the Library Programs Service, Mail Stop SLLA. LPS will attempt to procure the document for the depository system and catalog and classify it for the Monthly Catalog. If LPS is unable to procure copies of the document, they may request that the library send them a copy for microfiche conversion and distribution.

2. Assigning a Local SuDocs Number

If a SuDocs number cannot be located and it is desirable to add the publication to the collection before LPS catalogs and classifies it, one of the options below may be chosen.

1) Catalog and classify in Dewey, LC, or other system, and place in the library's general collections.

2) Place the document in a library vertical file under the appropriate subject heading.

3) Using one of the methods below, classify the document with a local SuDocs number and process it like any other document.

a. If the document is part of an identifiable series, use a "homemade" SuDocs number and bracket it on the publication or insert an (x) either before the colon or after the entire number to indicate that it is not an official classification number. This will help to prevent the number from conflicting with any number later assigned by LPS.

b. Classify the document in "General Publications" for the publishing agency. The "General Publications" number usually ends with a "2." For example, D 1.2:, HE 20.3202:, Y 3.T 24:2, etc. GPO has agreed to reserve, for local use, the subdivisions of /2 through /9 following the General Publications number of each agency. An exception are those few numbers which have already been subdivided, such as 1.2:.

The "General Publications" number may be subdivided by adding slashes and numbers. For example, non-depository documents from the Dept. of the Army may be classified D 101.2/2x: or serials D 101.2/3x:. These numbers may be further subdivided as necessary with dashes or slashes. The 2-figure Cutter Table is needed to assign Cutter numbers. (C. A. Cutter's 2-Figure Author Table. Swanson-Swift revision. Littleton, Co: Libraries Unlimited, Inc., 1969.) Check the GPO Classification Manual (GP 3.29:P 88/993) for policy on dates, numbers, etc.

In order to identify these publications quickly on the shelflist, it may be helpful to make the entry on different-colored card stock. In the event that LPS does assign a number, and it seems desirable to change the classification, the publication will be easily identifiable.

.F. Shelving/Filing

If a document, a shelflist card, or a microfiche is filed incorrectly, it may be lost for years. All staff working with documents, from the reference staff to shelvers, must become familiar with the SuDocs classification system and with local library filing and shelving policies.

When possible conflicts arise in shelving or filing, decisions should be recorded in the departmental manual and explained to all staff. Shelflist cards should be filed using the same rules as for shelving paper documents or filing microfiche. New staff assigned to shelving and filing should have their work revised until they have demonstrated their familiarity with the system. All staff should be familiar with An Explanation of the Superintendent of Documents Classification System (GP 3.2:C 56/8/990) and the GPO Classification Manual (GP 3.29:P 88/993).

There are many acceptable methods for filing and shelving documents. Some libraries have chosen to file numbers before letters while others have adopted the opposite strategy. Many libraries continue to follow the alphabetic/ mnemonic system presented in earlier editions of this manual and presented below:

C Cutter
D Date
L Letter
N Number
W Word

.The important thing is not the method chosen, but rather to have a logically and consistently applied order to the documents collection, one which is easily understood by staff and patrons.

G. Microfiche

Chapter 4 of the Instructions to Depository Libraries covers the physical care of microfiche. It is important to keep abreast of the professional literature relating to care, storage, reproduction, and access to microforms. See also the section on microfiche in Chapter 6 of this manual.

Documents librarians should ensure that microfiche are bibliographically accessible and processed and checked-in in the same manner as paper documents. Ownership should be stamped on the envelope, but care should be taken not to damage the microfiche. Microfiche should be shelved by SuDocs numbers, although some large sets may be filed separately. For example, many libraries file the Department of Energy (DOE) microfiche by accession number; others file them by the report number. Some ways to improve access to microfiche are to:

1) Add serial titles in microfiche to union lists;

2) Make cross references from the SuDocs file and the shelflist to the location of microfiche sets which are not arranged by SuDocs number;

3) Enter cataloging records for microfiche in the library's catalog.

Special care should be taken in filing microfiche, as they are frequently misfiled. When removing a microfiche from the file, a marker should be placed in the space to facilitate refiling.

.H. Electronic Products

Whenever possible the technical processing of electronic products, such as CD-ROMs and floppy diskettes, should be mainstreamed into the department's normal workflow. Special considerations for housing, shelving and backing-up diskettes are covered in Chapter 4, "Electronic Publications," of this manual.

Depository libraries must check-in and provide bibliographic access for electronic materials just as they would for paper and microfiche documents. Manual and online check-in procedures detailed in previous sections of this chapter may be used for all formats including electronic. When processing floppy diskettes, call numbers and ownership should be marked on a self adhesive label and applied to the floppy diskette. Never write directly on the diskette as this will damage the product. Property stamps and call numbers may be written on the protective envelope (remove the diskette first), but care must then be taken to ensure that the diskette always remains with the appropriate envelope.

Similarly, self adhesive labels may be placed on jewel boxes accompanying CD-ROMs. However, care must be taken not to separate the CD-ROM from its label. To avoid this problem, some libraries are using "Compact Disk Circle Labels" specifically designed for affixing information directly to CDs. This product was designed for use on musical CDs and works in the same manner as a label on an LP. Since the labels attach to the clear plastic portion on the CD-ROM, libraries using this product anticipate no problems with the archival quality of the CD-ROM.

As with paper and microfiche, libraries may use the shelving arrangement that is most appropriate for their situation. For example, CD-ROMs may be stored on the shelf, in specially designed cabinets, or in microfiche cabinets. It should be stressed, however, that when not in use electronic products should be stored in a protective device such as an envelope or jewel box.

I. Maps

Maps have been available through the depository system for as long as the program has existed. In 1984, maps of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Defense Mapping Agency were made available to libraries through the GPO depository system. Since that time, other agencies such as the National Ocean Service have added their maps to the program. (For additional information see Chapter 3, "Maps," in this manual.)

1. Selection

Before selecting map item numbers the librarian should give careful thought as to what will be involved in processing, housing, and servicing a map collection. Maps are often fragile and their format and nature demand special treatment and housing facilities.

.2. Housing

Sheet maps should be housed flat, not folded or rolled, in regular map cases. Map cases are available in differing sizes and usually contain five to ten drawers. Map sheets may vary from page size (8 1/2" x 11") (CIA Country Maps) to more than five feet (BLM Quadrangle Maps). To reduce damage and provide an efficient storage facility, a map case approximately 55" x 45", with 2" deep drawers could be used. Most cases have accompanying paper folders which are unsuitable for archival purposes. Maps that are to be kept for long periods of time should be placed flat and unfolded in low acid paper preservation folders.

3. Classification

If the library has a retrospective map collection of any size, it is recommended that the map classification system already in use for the entire map collection be used for depository receipts. The advantage of this is that all the library's maps will be in one logical sequence.

Many map libraries use the Library of Congress G classification system. Under this system, each major geographical area has a unique number which can be divided by general or specific topics, political or natural regions, and cities. As the majority of map requests are by a particular geographic area, this system is recommended for most libraries. If maps are filed by SuDocs number, libraries have no ready access by geographical area.

.4. Processing

Upon receipt, maps should be stamped with the depository/date stamp and the shipping list marked to indicate that the map has been received. Care should be taken not to place the stamp on the face of the map. Maps are typically stamped in the lower right corner unless doing so covers important information. If this is the case, the stamp should be placed on the verso of the map sheet. However, caution should be used when stamping the verso as map paper is frequently very thin and stamps can bleed through, damaging the map. Some maps require special stamps, for example, the nautical charts must be stamped with a warning that they should not be used for navigational purposes.

.5. Check-in

There should be a record in the SuDocs shelflist for each map series received indicating where the series is shelved. The classification number used for filing each series should be indicated on the shelflist card. Additionally, a piece level check-in record for each map must be prepared. This file should be located near the map collection, and need not be a part of the main SuDocs shelflist.

Some maps cannot be checked-in on standard holding cards. Whenever possible, a graphic index should be used to record individual map sheets. A note should be placed in the shelflist to indicate where the graphic index is filed. If maps are cataloged or maintained online, this record may be used as the shelflist.

Maps from the U.S. Geological Survey and the Defense Mapping Agency are sent in separate shipments with either the shipping lists or packing slips enclosed. These shipments can be sent directly to the map collection even if that collection has a different address from the main depository.

If other maps are maintained and housed separately from the main documents collection, copies of shipping lists should be forwarded to the map library along with the publications. SuDocs number corrections for maps and copies of Administrative Notes with map information, along with any other relevant information, eg. the Instructions, Superseded List, GPO Classification Manual, etc., should also be sent to the map library. Map libraries may be added to the mailing list for Administrative Notes by writing:

The Editor, Administrative Notes
U.S. Government Printing Office
Library Programs Service (SLL)
Washington, D.C. 20401

Maps such as census tract or block statistics maps, which are necessary in the use of textual material, may be kept with the related material rather than housed in a separate map collection. Remember, however, that maps which are folded and stored in the publication will inevitably fall apart. Therefore, maps included in publications should be removed from the publication, unfolded, and stored flat.

Maps kept in the government publications area will need adequate map cases. Cross references should be made on the map, on the text, and in the shelflist to indicate location. If either the map or the text is cataloged, the note should also appear on the catalog record. If the library has a separate map collection, the map librarian should be consulted regarding these folded and/or miscellaneous maps, as well as about handling atlases and other related materials.

Visiting a nearby library with a large map collection would be helpful before deciding how to house and process maps. Most major college and university libraries (or geography/geology departments) as well as many large public libraries have separate map collections. Numerous libraries have full-time map librarians who will be glad to share their knowledge and experience with newcomers to the field. Several published directories of map resources organized by geographic region should make finding a resource person easy.

.J. Statistics

Most libraries maintain statistics on the number of pieces, volumes, and microforms in their collections. These may be used in reporting Association of Research Libraries (ARL) statistics, completing the HEGIS report, or preparing the departmental annual report.

At a minimum, each depository library should maintain statistics on the size of the collection, with separate statistics for paper, microfiche, electronic products and services, and maps. These numbers are essential for completing the myriad of surveys that each library typically receives; ongoing statistics are also helpful in determining future space and staff needs. Other statistics that could be kept include circulation, interlibrary loan, discards, cards filed, linear feet added, and number and type of reference questions. The possibilities are endless, and librarians should check with their administrators periodically to ensure that all necessary statistics are being kept.

To determine the number of documents in a collection, count the number of full three-foot long shelves of documents and multiply by three to get the total linear feet of documents. Multiply that number by 52 to get an estimate of the number of documents in the collection. This figure can be kept up to date by adding or subtracting receipts and discards from the total.

The size of the microfiche collection can be estimated in the same manner. LPS estimates that 75 envelopes, containing one diazo microfiche each, occupy one inch. By measuring the total number of inches of microfiche and multiplying by 75 the library can determine the approximate number of microfiche in the collection.

.GPO has provided the following conversion factors for estimating the size of documents collections.

Paper (hard copy)
1 linear foot (12 inches)= 52 pieces

1 volume = 11 sheets
1 title = 2.5 sheets
1 inch (with envelopes) = 75 sheets

200 flat sheets = 1 drawer (2" deep)

For further discussion of statistics for documents collections see:

Morton, Bruce. "Random Thoughts on Numbers: the Need for Minimum Uniform Statistical Reporting Standards for U.S. Depository Libraries," Government Publications Review, vol. 11, May-June, 1984, pp. 195-202.

"Statistics Guidelines for Documents Librarians," Documents to the People, vol. 9, November, 1981, pp. 279-284.

Turner, Carol. "Counting Government Documents" in Association of Research Libraries. Minutes of the 114th Meeting, May 10-12, 1989. Part III: Future Directions for the ARL Statistics. 1990, pp. 91-95.

.K. Conclusion

The objectives of technical processing of documents are to: 1) Ensure that all publications to which a library is entitled have been received from LPS;

2) Make documents available to the public as quickly and efficiently as possible;

3) Maintain proper records to ensure proper bibliographic control.

When questions arise about processing procedures, it may be helpful to contact another documents librarian, either at the regional library or at a neighboring library for assistance. However, in the final analysis, each library must determine what works best for it and follow those procedures.

.Documents accumulate quickly when there is no one available to process them. Claims, if not promptly sent out, will be returned unfilled. Patrons often need the most up-to-date information available and in many cases request material before it is even shipped to depository libraries. It is essential to avoid backlogs in the processing of depository shipments. Whenever possible, staff should be cross-trained to do as many jobs as possible. This extra training will prove indispensable in times of emergencies, resignations, vacations, and reassignments.

Finally, it is imperative that depositories maintain a documents manual, where various policies, procedures, and decisions are recorded. Even the smallest documents collection is complex enough to require a procedures manual. All decisions and changes should be written down for future reference and local policies and procedures recorded and kept adjacent to this manual. ..

[ Back to the Table of Contents ]

Chapter 6

Section 1. General Maintenance

A. Preservation Priorities

B. Paper Conservation

Section 2. Microfiche Conservation

A. Environment
1. Storage Containers

B. Care and Maintenance

1. Cleaning

C. Equipment

1. Readers
2. Reader/Printers & Duplicators

D. References

Section 3. Rare and Valuable Documents

A. Identification 1. Age 2. 1909 Checklist 3. Intrinsic Value 4. Specific SuDocs Numbers 5. Categories

B. Determining Value

C. Security and Preservation

D. Bibliography

1. Historical Sources
2. General Bibliographic Search Tools that Include Documents
3. Documents Search Tools
4. Preservation
5. Collection Security
6. Disaster Preparedness

. .

Chapter 6 Maintenance

This chapter discusses the physical care of paper and microfiche documents. For maintenance of electronic products, see the section on Housing in Chapter 4.

Security issues and the care of rare and valuable documents are also covered in this chapter.

Section 1
General Maintenance

The documents collection, by virtue of its importance as a primary resource for the history of the nation, requires protection from environmental abuse, physical mishandling by staff and patrons, and theft. While the level of need in each library will depend upon the age and extent of the collection, all librarians should be aware of the potential problems and practice conservation techniques. Such factors as the cost of replacement; scarcity of complete collections and/or individual documents; the value to collectors who prize maps, plates, and content; and the acidity of the paper which is contributing to its deterioration mean that libraries need to develop preservation and security plans and policies for their collections.

.A. Preservation Priorities

Since most libraries have limited funds and staff, priorities should be established for the allocation of available monetary and personnel resources. Consideration should be given to learning basic preservation planning and skills, evaluating the condition of the collection, securing the collection as needed, and identifying "rare and valuable documents" which will require special care. Be sure to include disaster planning with your other conservation activities.

Conservation of all materials is your first concern. This means the prevention of deterioration in your library's collection. Binding is recommended for publications that are meant for a permanent collection. Use of acid-free pamphlet binders and acid-free envelope storage binders can also protect materials. All materials should be housed in a stable environment with no abrupt temperature or humidity changes. All maps and microfiche should be stored in sturdy, acid-free housing.

.B. Paper Conservation

Paper materials need to be provided with the proper storage environment. This includes year round temperature and humidity control with proper air circulation and limited exposure to ultraviolet light. High temperature and humidity encourage pests and mildew while too little humidity causes paper to dry out.

The recommended temperature for paper is in the 65-70 degree range, and relative humidity for paper should be maintained at 40-55%. Turn off lights when not in use, as light can damage materials. Dust and dirt damage materials, so good housekeeping practices are important--cleanliness, no food or drink, and no smoking. Be sure to clean books and shelves on a regular schedule and inspect for mold.


Improper shelving practices also cause damage, particularly jamming books into a tight space or letting them flop on the end of a shelving run. For ribbed shelving, create a flat surface by lining with acid-free board.

Develop and implement policies for the proper use and handling of materials for both staff and patrons. These can be as simple as how to remove books from the shelves and replace them properly, or how to photocopy without damaging the material. Badly deteriorated items can be considered for microfilm conversion or preservation photocopying. There are many books, videos and workshops to assist you in learning good repair techniques.

.Section 2
Microfiche Conservation

The term microform encompasses any materials that are published in microfilm, microfiche, microprint or microcard. Of these types, only microfilm and microfiche are currently produced. Although both may be a part of many library collections, microfiche will be familiar to documents librarians. A common publication medium used increasingly by the GPO, the trend toward microfiche will likely continue because microfiche requires much less storage space and is less expensive to produce than paper. However, there are a number of important considerations relating to microfiche handling, storage, and use that should be of concern to documents librarians.

GPO produces and distributes diazo process microfiche, which are subject to fading over time and should not be considered an archival document storage medium. However, with proper care and storage, GPO microfiche will have a long shelf life of 100 years or more.

A. Environment

Microfiche should be kept in a climate controlled area with minimal variation in temperature and relative humidity. A constant temperature of no more than 21 C (70 F) and a constant relative humidity of 40%, plus or minus 5%, are standard guidelines. Proper air conditioning generally provides these conditions. However, the temperature and humidity should be checked periodically to insure that proper storage conditions remain constant.

Additionally, microfiche that is shelved or stored for check-in or reshelving purposes should be placed away from direct sunlight. Exposure to sunlight will cause diazo microfiche images to fade. Microfiche should not be stored on outer walls or in basements and should be kept away from air vents, radiators, and drafts. Do not store them near photocopiers, chemical duplicators, fresh paint, gasoline, etc.

Never mix diazo, vesicular and silver halide microfiche in the same drawers; preferably keep them in separate cabinets. Chemical reactions between the various compositions may cause deterioration of the microfiche.

Do not leave the rubber bands on packets, as the deteriorating rubber releases chemicals harmful to the microfiche.

Other microforms, particularly color microforms, require more stringent storage conditions. Check the references listed below for more information on proper storage conditions.

Paper used to store or separate the fiche should be acid-free. Fiche envelopes and dividers furnished by GPO meet this standard. Microfiche should be stored vertically in acid-free containers or envelopes. Envelopes should be stamped with acid-free ink, but it is not necessary to remove the microfiche when stamping the envelopes when normal force is used.

.1. Storage Containers

Diazo microfiche should be stored individually in acid-free paper microfiche envelopes and kept in a dust-free, light-free, and moisture-free environment. Stainless steel, aluminum, or baked enamel cabinets are ideal storage containers. Plastic boxes, unless constructed of non-deteriorating plastic, can adversely affect microfiche. Storage containers should be chosen according to the type which is most easily housed in the library and which is most accessible to library staff and patrons. Particularly when using cabinets, staff should be aware of the weight-bearing capacity of the library area in which the collection is located. Storage containers should not be tightly packed; room should be allowed for growth and expansion.

B. Care and Maintenance

Microfiche should periodically be examined for signs of deterioration. Although an examination of each microfiche in large collections would be impossible, staff should inspect a representative sample on a regular basis, at least once per year. Should problems be detected, make note of them and attempt to determine the cause and how much of the collection may be affected.

Additionally, the microfiche collection should be considered in conjunction with the library's plan for disasters. As with printed material, water from burst pipes, sprinkler systems or flooding can be injurious to microfiche. A fire extinguisher should be stored in close proximity to the collection.

Fading of images, scratches, brittleness, or tears indicate that the microfiche has deteriorated. This deterioration may be caused by improper storage conditions or inappropriate handling of the microfiche. Devices used to bind the fiche together, such as paper clips, may cause scratches or other damage. Rubber bands, used by GPO to keep the microfiche together during depository shipments, can cause decomposition and should be removed before filing. Staff and patrons should be instructed to handle the microfiche with care, holding it by the edges. Staff should request that users of the microfiche collection report any problems.

1. Cleaning

To maintain optimum conditions, staff who process or handle the microfiche on a regular basis may want to consider using soft gloves to avoid fingerprints. If the fiche do become dirty or difficult to read, clean them using a dry, soft, lint-free cloth or use a microfiche cleaning solvent with the cloth. Be sure that the cleaning solvent can be used with the type of microfiche to be cleaned.

C. Equipment

Microform equipment can be expensive, and the amount of equipment required to service a given microform collection will vary depending on usage and a given library's resources. Of prime importance in any microform collection is spare projection lamps, microform glassware, and other spare parts for maintaining and servicing the equipment. A designated staff member should be in charge of the library's microform equipment, become familiar with it, and be available to perform basic repairs and maintenance. Keep the microfiche readers clean with weekly maintenance, as this will assist in keeping the fiche clean.

.1. Readers

At least one reader should be provided for microfiche in the library's collection. Additional fiche readers are recommended as needed to accommodate increased levels of use. Readers should be cleaned regularly to produce the best image possible for users; spare light bulbs should be kept near the reader so that used bulbs can be quickly and easily replaced.

2. Reader/Printers & Duplicators

At least one reader/printer capable of making eye-legible paper copies from microfiche documents is strongly recommended. Current technology allows users to make dry, plain paper copies comparable in quality to those made by standard photocopiers. Depositories, which have become indispensable sources for interlibrary loan, should also consider the purchase and maintenance of a microfiche duplicator capable of making fiche-to-fiche copies of documents.

.D. References

The books listed below will be useful for obtaining more information on microforms and microforms equipment. Additionally, issues of Inform: The Magazine of Information and Image Management (Association for Information and Image Management, 1100 Wayne Ave., Suite 1100, Silver Spring, MD 20910) contain useful, up-to-date articles. Some articles contain the latest standards for care and preservation of microforms.

Folcarelli, Ralph J., Tannenbaum, Arthur C., and Ferragamo, Ralph C. The Microform Connection: A Basic Guide for Libraries. New York: R.R. Bowker, 1982.

Michaels, George H., Kerber, Mindy S. and Hall, Hal W. A Microform Reader Maintenance Manual. Westport, CT: Meckler Publishing, 1984. Saffady, William. Micrographics. Littleton, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1985. Zink, Steven D. and Melin, Nancy Jean. Government Documents and Microforms: Standards and Management Issues. Westport, CT: Meckler Publishing, 1984. .

Section 3
Rare and Valuable Documents

Some documents are rare, some are valuable, and some are both rare and valuable. It is a challenge to documents librarians first to identify these materials and second to preserve them from damage and loss. This section briefly discusses methods to meet both these goals. A bibliography provides a starting point for those wishing to research this area at greater length.

A. Identification

Identification of valuable documents takes time and effort. There are no quick lists. There are several starting places, however. First, give special consideration to materials pertaining to your own state or locale. If you can encapsulate only a few maps, select those of your own state. Select reports and other volumes on the same basis; and don't forget the small circulars, etc. as they are the most likely to be lost over the years.

1. Age

The Library of Congress designates anything published prior to 1801 as material to be cataloged as rare books. If you own documents published prior to that date you should consider placing them in your rare book or special collections. The Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) Rare Books and Manuscripts (RBMS) Ad Hoc Committee for Developing Transfer Guidelines published their recommendations in "Guidelines on the Selection of General Collection Materials for Transfer to Special Collections," College and Research Libraries News, no. 46, July/August 1985, pages 349-352. These will be helpful in determining what should be removed from the regular collection.

2. 1909 Checklist

For anything published after 1801 and up to 1909, the most practical approach is to take the 1909 Checklist (Checklist of United States Public Documents, 1789-1909. Washington, GPO, 1911) and assume that any publication in a library's collection that is also in the Checklist is worthy of further consideration. This recommendation is made for several reasons.

First, the National Archives does not own those publications indicated in the Checklist by an asterisk (* not in the Public Documents Library). A library owning such a document should protect it.

Second, a commercial vendor searching for copies of non-Serial Set materials in the 1909 Checklist for a microfiche project has been unable to locate copies of many materials, particularly leaflets, regulations, and circulars. If you have any, they may be rare.

Third, the material in the latter half of the Checklist, from the 1860's on, was published during a period when the paper manufacturing process left residual acids, causing the paper to become brittle and disintegrate, a condition contributing to the increasing scarcity of these publications. The cost of replacement with microform products is very high and the reproduction may not always be as legible as the original.

Finally, there is the inherent or intrinsic value of these publications as primary records of the history of our nation and governmental processes.

3. Intrinsic Value

Intrinsic value refers to the qualities or characteristics that make the original record have permanent value. These can be:

1) Age;

2) Aesthetic or artistic quality (having maps, plates, photographs, etc.);

3) Value for use in exhibits (in some way the original has greater impact than a copy);

4) General and substantial public interest because of direct association with significant people, places, things, issues or events, and

5) Significance as documentation for the legal basis of institutions or formulation of policy at the highest executive level.

4. Specific SuDocs Numbers

Several Superintendent of Documents classification numbers in the Checklist can be immediately targeted for special consideration, either as transfer items or conservation projects that might place them in special boxes, etc.

Anything in the Z section covering the first fourteen Congresses should be considered rare and valuable. Other sections are:

N 1.8: Explorations and surveys;

S 6: International exhibitions and expositions;

W 7.5: Explorations and surveys; and

W 7.14: Explorations and surveys for the railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean.

Many of these reports also appear in the Serial Set. Several bibliographies compiled by Adelaide R. Hasse covering these and other SuDocs numbers can be very helpful and are listed in the bibliography at the end of this section.

5. Categories

Using categories is another way of searching for important and valuable documents. Many famous scientists began their significant work with reports they wrote for the early exploring expeditions. The category of scientific and technical discoveries goes right into the twentieth century. The patent papers of Thomas Edison, the Manhattan Project, and nuclear energy publications in the 1950's will require preservation for future generations. U.S. Geological Survey publications describing the discovery of natural resources or phenomena such as major earthquakes within the continental U.S. are important. Political events such as the McCarthy hearings and controversial reports such as the Kennedy assassination are candidates for preservation.

Another approach to evaluate your collection for preservation and security purposes is to examine the categories of publications that libraries are requesting be printed on permanent/alkaline paper. Under the ANSI standard, government-sponsored research studies, almanacs, census data, and survey maps qualify.

Because of their legal importance, additional categories were recommended in an article, "Why GPO should use alkaline paper," Documents to the People, vol. 16, no. 1, March 1988, pp. 38-41.

This article includes publications mandated by law, annual reports, legislative history sources (House and Senate hearings, reports and documents), permanent cumulations of judicial, legislative or administrative decisions, orders and opinions, rules and regulations; yearbooks and annual statistical reports, treaty series, advisory committee reports, proceedings of conferences, institutes and advisory boards; and reports, decisions, and conferences concerning domestic and international arbitration.

B. Determining Value

When trying to determine the value of items in the collection, use standard tools such as American Book Prices Current, Bookman's Price Index, and Mildred Mandeville's Used Book Price Guide. These will give you a range of prices and some idea of those items which are highly collectible. Search under both U.S. agency names and the personal names involved, as there is no consistency in the way in which publications are listed. Ask for assistance from your library's rare books specialist or a reputable rare books dealer. If your library does not own any of the pricing guides, the dealer is sure to have at least one of them, and probably receives sale catalogs from other dealers.

C. Security and Preservation

Obviously, not all the materials in the 1909 Checklist will be scarce or valuable enough to merit special treatment. They are worthy, however, of placement in a more secure area if you have them in open stacks. Consider caging to create a locked area or placement in closed stacks. The Serial Set and American State Papers are examples of sets you will want to secure and keep in the best condition possible. The valuable maps, plates and lithographs contained in these and other documents are highly collectible and prized by thieves.

The security of your collection will be influenced by your financial resources, space, and location and number of staff. An area with controlled access will help protect your collection, but having staff with their eyes open and aware of the value of the collection is also vital. Thieves have included well-known faculty and researchers. Know how many maps or volumes a patron has and get the same number back. If the maps in a rare document are counted before you give them to a patron, doing a quick check at return can protect against losses.

For the care and repair of your valuable and rare items, you need expertise. If you don't have a preservationist on your staff, consult one of the regional centers such as SOLINET and the Northeast Documents Conservation Center or the Library of Congress Preservation Office for assistance.

D. Bibliography

This section has presented a brief overview of the issues and concerns in preserving the documents collection. More in-depth information can be obtained using the materials listed in the bibliography.

A preservation packet, funded by various documents and map organizations, was distributed to depository libraries in 1993 to further the preservation efforts of documents librarians. The packet, Rare and Valuable Government Documents: A Resource Packet on Identification, Preservation, and Security Issues for Government Documents Collections, was compiled and edited by Jim Walsh, Barbara Hulyk, and George Barnum. It was published by the ALA/RMMS/GODORT/ MAGERT Joint Committee on Government Documents as Rare Books. The packet includes the "transfer guidelines"; other recommendations from rare books people; organization and vendor resources; how-to information, and a more complete bibliography .

.1. Historical Sources

Poore, Benjamin Perley. Descriptive Catalogue of the Government Publications of the United States, Sept. 5, 1774-March 4, 1881. Washington, DC, G.P.O., 1885. (48th Congress, 2nd Session, Senate Miscellaneous Document 67) (Serial Set vol. 2268). Also reprinted editions.

Hasse, Adelaide R. Bibliography of United States Public Documents Relating to Interoceanic Communications, Nicaragua, Isthmus of Panama, Isthmus of Tehuantepic, etc. Washington, DC, G.P.O., 1899.

Hasse, Adelaide R. Index to United States Documents Relating to Foreign Affairs, 1828-1861 (Publication 185, pts. 1-3). Carnegie Institution of Washington.

Hasse, Adelaide R., comp. Reports of Explorations Printed in the Documents of the United States Government: A Contribution Toward a Bibliography. Washington, DC, G.P.O., 1899.

United States. Dept. of the Interior. Division of Documents. Comprehensive Index to the Publications of the United States Government, 1881-1893, by John G. Ames. Washington, DC, G.P.O., 1905.

2. General Bibliographic Search Tools That Include Documents

Shoemaker, Richard H. A Checklist of American Imprints 1820-1829. New York, Scarecrow, 1964-71. Title index for 1820-1928 by Cooper, M. Frances... Followed by 1830, Cooper, Gayle; 1831, Bruentjen, Scott and Carol Bruntjen; and 1830-1839, Rinderknecht, Carol (also title index).

Shaw, Ralph R. American Bibliography, a Preliminary Checklist for 1801-1819. New York, Scarecrow, 1958-66. .The Shinn Lists. William A. Moffett, ed., Oberlin College. Oberlin, Ohio, 1982. (This is the list of materials prepared from the accumulated card file of an accomplished book thief.) 3. Documents Search Tools

Haskell, Daniel Carl. The United States Exploring Expedition, 1838-1842, and Its Publications, 1838-1874: A Bibliography. New York, New York Public Library, 1942.

Heisser, David. "Federal Documents as Rare Books," Documents to the People, vol. 16, no. 4, Dec. 1988, pp. 176-178.

Pestana, Harold R. Bibliography of Congressional Geology. New York, Hafner, 1972.

Seavey, Charles A. "Bibliographic Addendum to Carl Wheat's Mapping the Transmississippi West," Special Library Association, Geography and Map Division. Bulletin, no. 105, pp. 12-19, Sept. 1976.

Seavey, Charles A. "Locating Illustrated Federal Publications from the Pre-GPO Period Using the 1909 Checklist," Documents to the People, vol. 17, no. 3, September 1989, p.130.

Seavey, Charles A. "Maps of the American State Papers," Special Libraries Association, Geography and Map Division. Bulletin, no. 107, pp. 28-33, Mar. 1977, and no. 110, pp. 3-11, Dec. 1977.

Seavey, Charles A. "Wheat to Serial Set Conversion," Special Libraries Association, Geography and Map Division. Bulletin, no. 108, pp. 37-40, June 1977.

Wagner, Henry Raup. The Plains and the Rockies: A Critical Bibliography of Exploration, Adventure, and Travel in the American West, 1800-1865. Various editions. .Wheat, Carl. Mapping the Trans-mississippi West, 1540-1861. San Francisco, Institute of Historical Cartography, 1957-1963.

Wondriska, Rebecca. "Women and the American Dream, 1900-1925," Government Publications Review, vol. 17, no. 2, March/April 1990, pp. 143-157. Although this goes beyond the 1909 Checklist, it is an approach to be followed developing a list for a special interest subject.

4. Preservation

Book Preservation Technologies. Washington, DC. Congress of the U.S., Office of Technology Assessment. 1988. (Y 3.T 22/2:2 B 64).

Darling, Pamela W., with Duane E. Webster. Preservation Planning Program: An Assisted Self-Study Manual for Libraries. Washington, DC, Association of Research Libraries, 1987.

Darling, Pamela W. and Wesley Boomgaarden, compilers. Preservation Planning Program: Resource Notebook. Washington, DC, Association of Research Libraries, 1987. (For use with Darling's Manual.)

Fox, Lisa L. A Core Collection in Preservation. Chicago, Resources and Technical Services Division, American Library Association, 1988. This comprehensive bibliography includes preservation planning, emergency preparedness, conservation techniques, and general works and bibliographies. Includes materials for small libraries.

Greenfield, Jane. Books: Their Care and Repair. New York, H.W. Wilson, 1983.

Library of Congress Preservation Office. Polyester Film Encapsulation. Washington, DC, Library of Congress, 1980. (LC 1.2:P 76)

Milevski, Robert J. Book Repair Manual. Carbondale, IL, Cooperative Conservation Program, 1984.

Morrow, Carolyn Clark, and Carole Dyal. Conservation Treatment Procedures: A Manual of Step-by-Step Procedures for the Maintenance and Repair of Library Materials. 2nd ed. Littleton, CO, Libraries Unlimited, 1986. Southeastern Library Network, Inc. (SOLINET) recommends this for institutions that can afford only one repair manual.

Roberts, Matt. Bookbinding and the Conservation of Books: A Dictionary of Descriptive Terminology. Washington, DC, Library of Congress, 1982. (LC 1.2:B 64/3)

5. Collection Security

Association of College and Research Libraries. Rare Books and Manuscript Section. Security Committee. "Guidelines Regarding Thefts in Libraries," College and Research Libraries News, vol. 49, no. 3, March 1988, pp. 159-62.

"Book Theft: Guidelines for Library Staff," in Morris, John. The Library Disaster Preparedness Handbook. Chicago, American Library Association, 1986.

"Guidelines for the Security of Rare Book, Manuscript, and Other Special Collections," College and Research Libraries News, vol. 46, no. 3, March 1982, pp. 90-93.

Otness, Harold. "Going Plating: Stealing Maps from Libraries," Western Association of Map Librarians. Information Bulletin, vol. 19, no. 4, August 1988.

.6. Disaster Preparedness

Barton, John P., and Johanna G. Wellheiser, eds. An Ounce of Prevention: A Handbook on Disaster Contingency Planning for Archives, Libraries and Record Centres. Toronto, Toronto Area Archivists Group Education Foundation, 1985.

Darling, Pamela W. and Wesley Boomgaarden, compilers. Preservation Planning Program: Resource Notebook. Washington, DC, Association of Research Libraries, 1987, pp. 159-163.

Waters, Peter. Procedures for Salvage of Water-Damaged Library Materials. Washington, DC, Library of Congress, Preservation Office, 1979. (LC 1.2:SA 3)


[ Back to the Table of Contents ]

Chapter 7
Depository Promotion

Section 1. Public Awareness

A. Promotion in the Library

B. Promotion to Primary Patrons

C. Promotion to the Public

D. Practical Promotion Suggestions

. .

Chapter 7 Depository Promotion

The Federal Depository Library Program was established to provide the citizens of the United States with access to Government information. Public access to this information remains the highest priority of all Federal depository libraries. Public access to Government information begins with public awareness of its existence. In order to benefit from the resources of Federal depository libraries, the American public needs to be alerted to these valuable informational resources gathered at taxpayers' expense.

The single most important action depositories can take to increase public awareness of the resources of the depository is to provide subject access to the resources of the depository through the library's main catalog. Subject accessibility to the resources of the depository is the single most effective method of increasing public awareness and documents usage.

.Section 1
Public Awareness

The valuable resources of the depository should be promoted to three groups: the library staff; the library's primary users (academic community, downtown businesses, judges, etc.); and the citizens of the U.S. Congressional district or relevant region.

While the utility of Government information is well documented, the informational resources of many Federal depositories remain under-utilized. The general public's usage of depository materials varies widely from library to library, depending on the visibility and accessibility of the documents collection in the libraries.

As an under-utilized documents collection is not cost-effective for any library, it is in the best self-interest of the library to engage in depository promotion. Increasing public awareness, and therefore usage, of the depository should also provide additional justification for increasing the funding, resources and support provided by your library administration.

.A. Promotion in the Library

Initial depository public awareness must begin with the library's staff. All levels of the staff, from director to clerical worker, should be made aware of the unique resources of the documents collection.

Staff awareness of depository resources is becoming especially important as changes in technology increasingly allow documents records to be included in the library's general reference search strategy. This means that the public service staff in other areas of the library must have some familiarity with the documents collection. Most libraries can no longer afford to have just one center of documents expertise. Cross-training of library staff is crucial in developing this library-wide expertise and it is also helpful when, because of some staffing contingency, the documents department needs staff from other areas of the library for back-up.

Cross-training on depository operations should not be limited to the public service staff. Many technical service librarians would benefit from instruction on the many unique aspects of depository operations. A depository is a library within a library; depository operations mirror all the functions of a library; and should not be thought of in isolation. Depositories function best as an integral part of the larger library.

While specific times for cross-training staff should be developed, many activities in this area can be done on an ongoing basis. For instance, the documents librarian should always be on the alert for Government publications that other staffers would find useful for reference or personal interest. This type of promotion must be a continuing process. The most successful depositories are those in which all library personnel know and can enthusiastically recommend documents to patrons.

.B. Promotion to Primary Patrons

Once internal promotion has been established, the library should develop strategies for promoting the depository operation among the library's primary patrons. Displays, prepared bibliographies, brochures, flyers, current awareness announcements and other traditional library promotional tools can be employed. Generally, the more creative and library-specific a promotion is, the more effective you will be in attracting people to the depository.

Academic or special libraries should contact department or division heads and student organizations or clients to inform them of the unique services and benefits that the depository offers to their particular user group. A public library will probably have a community resource file which could be used as a starting point to identify potential user groups.

A letter explaining the depository program and some of the subject areas in your collection, relevant to the group being contacted, is a good first step. Then follow up with an offer to speak to the group or help with research or special projects. Because the memberships of such community organizations change, this project could be repeated every two to three years.

Whenever possible, outreach should take place with individuals also, either in casual conversation or through formal notification of recent acquisitions or holdings in their area of interest.

.C. Promotion to the Public

The third and most important group to target for public awareness is the general public. The success of a Federal depository public awareness campaign should not be measured by how well the library's own primary user group is served, but on how it serves the general public. As most depositories were designated to serve a particular U.S. Congressional district, the population of that particular district or relevant region should be targeted for promotional efforts. As in the case of the library's primary user group, discrete segments of this community could be targeted for special depository outreach efforts.

D. Practical Promotion Suggestions

1) Contact the local district office of your U.S. Representative or Senator. Inform the staff there of your services to Congressional district constituents and invite the staff to come for a visit. Many of the requests that local district offices receive from constituents would be recognized by librarians as reference queries.

2) Depositories can develop an online notification system or hard copy form that can be attached to new depository accessions for current awareness notification of librarians, faculty or other "gatekeepers."

3) Even if the entire documents collection cannot be represented in the library's main catalog, purchased or constructed guide cards to be filed under certain subject headings to alert catalog users to the fact that information on that particular subject is available in the documents collection.

4) Create a display of colorful, controversial, unusual or provocative documents. Such a display can dispel the myth that documents are all "dry, boring and legalistic."

5) Display, or even better, circulate, posters, prints, photos and maps. Posters and other materials could be lent on long term loan to neighboring schools and community centers. A package of depository brochures could also be sent along with this material.

6) The library's depository status, resources and services could be highlighted on the local cable television's scrolled community announcements.

7) Depository materials can be used to establish a "Procurement Assistance Center" or "Government Contracting Center" in the library to help area businesses gain government contracts. Publications such as Commerce Business Daily can be utilized.

8) Local or state documents groups can attempt coordinated, community focused depository promotions. Publicity and promotion could be a future theme, goal or specific project for the group.

9) Offer to review or list relevant new documents for the local newspaper. Also contact the local radio and television stations. They all run public service announcements and are often interested in generating programming that would be educational or service oriented.

10) Make sure the unique resources and services of the depository are mentioned in any literature about the library or in any library-wide tours or orientations.

11) Celebrate significant depository milestones (the 500,000th document, a special anniversary, a new service) and invite the U.S. Representative, library administrators, and the local media.

.12) Utilize the resources of the GPO Marketing Program. Request packets of bookmarks, pamphlets, posters, bumper stickers, etc., and distribute them to patrons and/or the community at large. Free copies of the post card offering these materials, plus U.S. Government Books, are available from the U.S. Government Printing Office, Office of Marketing, Mail Stop: SM, Washington, DC 20401.

13) Send photocopies of relevant GPO Subject Bibliographies to interested community or academic groups. Target groups such as the League of Women Voters, who are interested in Government information.

14) Circulate copies of recent shipping lists and U.S. Government Books as current awareness tools. Recently superseded Publications Reference File (PRF) microfiche sets can be sent to other libraries or even the campus bookstore, so that patrons can be referred to the depository from those points.

15) Host a government information seminar for groups from your community. Refreshments can be made from recipes from government publications. You might even be able to get a guest speaker from a local Federal office or a testimonial from a frequent documents user.

16) Never miss an opportunity to visit another depository library. Good promotional ideas may be observed when visiting a neighboring depository operation. Also, think about adapting a promotional activity that has been used successfully in promoting other types of information or library service.

17) Share information on successful public awareness activities by submitting articles to the "Readers Exchange" column of Administrative Notes, Documents to the People, or other documents related literature. Share such information at workshops and documents related meetings.

.18) Develop special alcoves in the documents area for heavily requested depository material. A "statistics center" with census materials or a depository CD-ROM center might be worth establishing.

19) Invite groups from the community to tour the documents area: school groups, social or fraternal organizations, or other interested parties.

20) Contact all of the public and academic libraries in your area and make sure that they know they can refer patrons to the depository. Consider selective housing and other strategies of networking with neighboring libraries.

21) Develop a publicity package for the depository utilizing GPO bookmarks and brochures. Include an information sheet highlighting important depository titles such as the United States Code, the Code of Federal Regulations, the Congressional Record, and the National Trade Data Bank (NTDB). Distribute the packages to the local Representative's office, community leaders, local libraries and schools, and the local chamber of commerce.

22) Provide fantastic public service and word-of-mouth will ensure a certain amount of public awareness.

.. .

[ Back to the Table of Contents ]

Chapter 8

Section 1. Preparation

A. Inspection Schedule

B. Objectives of the Inspection Visit

C. Self-Study

.Section 2. The Inspection

A. Process

B. Post-Inspection Activities

C. Summary


Chapter 8 Inspections

Title 44 of the United States Code, which discusses the Federal Depository Library Program, states: "The Superintendent of Documents shall make first hand investigation of conditions [in depository libraries]..." This firsthand investigation is accomplished by inspectors from the Depository Services Staff, which is part of the Library Programs Service of GPO.

Depository library inspections began in the early 1970's. At that time, inspections were relatively informal. GPO personnel traveling to various meetings around the country would occasionally make side visits to depository libraries. Inspection visits were brief, and a simple checklist was used to evaluate depositories. Prompted by the then new Depository Library Council to the Public Printer, GPO began to formalize its Federal depository library inspection program. The first full time inspector was hired in 1974. Today there are four inspectors. All inspectors are professional librarians.

The inspection program has evolved over the years. As was mentioned, the first inspection reports were simple, brief checklists. Each inspector visited two or more libraries a day, often arriving unannounced. Current inspections are limited to one per day, and libraries are evaluated on compliance with Title 44, United States Code and the Instructions to Depository Libraries.

Depository library inspections should be viewed as an integral part of GPO's liaison activities with the Federal depository library community. Although the compliance review should always be taken seriously, the documents librarian should perceive it as a positive, learning experience. Documents librarians are encouraged to ask questions and voice concerns about the Federal Depository Library Program during the inspector's visit.

Section 1

A. Inspection Schedule

Generally, libraries are inspected in chronological order by date of last inspection. Geography and climate are also a consideration when planning an inspection visit. An inspector will usually visit about eight depositories during one two-week inspection trip. It is therefore common for neighboring depositories to be inspected by the same inspector during the inspection tour. Except for the larger states, GPO tries to inspect all the depositories within a state during the same year. This is done so that GPO can more accurately assess inter-depository cooperation and also economize on travel funds.

As the inspectors schedule visits to a number of libraries during an inspection tour, it is often extremely difficult to revise a scheduled itinerary after it has been established. If there is a real emergency and the depository needs to reschedule the compliance review, the library inspector should be notified immediately.

The compliance review will occupy nearly a full day. Inspections usually begin about 9:00 a.m. and conclude late in the afternoon. If you have made special arrangements for lunch (a specific time, etc.), please inform the inspector on the morning of the visit.

During the last half hour of the inspection visit, the inspector will meet privately with the library director or, in the absence of the director, a representative of the director. The documents librarian should ensure that the director is scheduled for this exit interview. If there are other staff members in your library whom the inspector should meet (librarians who work with documents outside of the documents department), then you will want to alert them to the inspector's visit. Key clerical staff who process documents should be available during the inspection visit.

The library inspector invites the regional librarian to all library inspections within the state or local area.

Any pertinent information you can forward to the inspector before the inspection visit will be appreciated. As the inspectors must drive to a different library every day, it is always helpful to supply them with directions to your library and send them a map, if possible. If parking permits or passes are necessary, these too could be sent to the inspector.

Providing the inspector with any necessary information before the compliance review can greatly facilitate the inspection process. If you do forward any materials to the inspector, you should send them as far in advance of the compliance review as possible.

B. Objectives of the Inspection Visit

One of the most misunderstood aspects of the Government Printing Office's service to the library community is the inspection process. Knowing the objectives of the visit and how the process works can give librarians a much better understanding of how their depository operation will be evaluated.

There is an underlying GPO "philosophy" of inspections. From the very beginning of the inspection program, inspections have been seen by both GPO and the library community as a positive, supportive experience for depositories and for depository librarians. The primary goal of the inspection program has always been to ensure that the depositories comply with their legal responsibilities as outlined in Title 44, United States Code and the Instructions to Depository Libraries. These responsibilities are taken very seriously by the Superintendent of Documents and they touch on almost every aspect of library service.

While documents librarians should take the inspection process very seriously, they should not be apprehensive about a planned compliance review. The inspectors have a great deal of empathy for the librarians they visit. After inspecting hundreds of libraries, the GPO library inspectors have become very familiar with the many challenges facing depositories. Inspectors evaluate the total depository operation, not the documents librarian. Inspectors are fully aware that librarians and library administrators are not totally in control of their own working environments.

In order for the compliance review to be truly effective, there must be honest cooperation and communication between the inspector and the library staff. It is important to remember that the inspector has only a few hours in which to evaluate the depository operation. No one knows this operation as well as the documents librarian. That is why the degree to which the documents librarian participates in the process is important. Responses given by the documents librarian to the inspector form the basis of the inspector's evaluation. If the response given is inaccurate, or as sometimes happens, incomplete, then that inaccuracy might be reflected in the compliance review. The accuracy of the inspection report is the highest priority of the inspection.

It is the documents librarian's responsibility to ensure that the inspector has an accurate picture of the depository operation. If there are exceptions to depository policy or there are aspects of the depository operation that might not be readily ascertainable, bring these exceptions to the attention of the inspector. If an inspector's question is not completely clear to a library staff member, the staff member should not hesitate to ask the inspector to rephrase or clarify the query.

Inspectors do not get involved in disputes among library staffers. If a problem is discovered during the course of the evaluation, the inspector will not fix blame on the staff. The inspector's job is to identify operational problems and note positive aspects of the depository. It is the task of the library administration to assign personnel responsibility for deficiencies in the depository operation.

In an effort to ensure that depository inspections are fair and conducted in a consistent manner, the evaluation of the library is based on the condition of the depository on the day of the visit. Future plans and improvements will be noted, but will not affect the compliance review.

During a compliance review, the inspector performs two important functions. The primary responsibility is to report on the condition of the depository. The inspection report identifies steps which the library must take to comply with the minimum standards for depository libraries as set forth in the Instructions to Depository Libraries.

The inspector's second responsibility is to act as a consultant to aid the documents librarian in increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of the depository operation. Inspectors are interested in helping the documents librarian by offering suggestions and support. The inspectors will ensure that the documents staff clearly recognize the difference between a standard which must be complied with and a recommendation to enhance depository service.

Documents librarians should not hesitate to ask the inspector questions or seek advice. The depository libraries and depository librarians form part of the community GPO serves.

C. Self-Study

The impact and benefits of a depository compliance review can be greatly enhanced by proper preparation on the part of the library. Many positive effects of a depository inspection can actually be felt before the inspector arrives. The announcement of an upcoming depository compliance review tends to focus the attention of the library staff and administration on the depository operation. This period before the actual inspection presents an excellent opportunity for the documents librarian to remind colleagues and the library administrator of the unique value, service, and challenges the depository brings to the institution and the community.

During this period the library staff should conduct a self-study of the library's depository operation. The self-study should be based on the Instructions to Depository Libraries. As a result of such a review of the depository operation, you will be in a much better position to identify the strengths and weakness of your own depository operation. You should then be in a position to anticipate the inspector's findings and communicate this information to your library administration. It is always better for the library director to learn of problems before the inspector arrives than at the time of the inspection visit. If these problems can be addressed before the visit, so much the better.

.Although it is only natural for some house cleaning to be done in anticipation of the compliance review, it is not wise to create an artificially good (and usually temporary) environment. Inspections are more accurate if the inspector views "typical" conditions. This does not preclude a library's attempting to permanently upgrade some aspect of the depository operation. Given that compliance review reports are based on the condition of the depository on the day of the inspection visit, it is in the best interest of the library to expedite any planned improvements in depository operations, so that these improvements can be recognized in the compliance review.

In preparing for an inspection visit, the documents librarian should make sure that certain materials are readily available. Procedures manuals, collection development policies, depository promotional material, departmental reports, statistics, library guides, and selective housing agreements can all assist the inspector. This is also a good time to compile a list of questions or concerns that you would like the inspector to address. This is the documents librarian's opportunity to interact with a representative of the Government Printing Office.

.As the inspector will be interested in inter-depository relations, the weeks preceding an inspection are a good time to meet with neighboring depository librarians. As mentioned before, there is a good chance that these librarians will also be preparing for inspections of their own depositories. They should welcome an opportunity to exchange ideas and information.

It is unwise to prepare for an inspection by studying an old inspection report. The present compliance review is different from previous reports, due to changes in the Instructions. The best preparation remains a self-study based on the Instructions and Title 44, United States Code.

.Section 2
The Inspection

A. Process

Sometimes inspectors arrive before or after the exact starting time scheduled for the inspection because of the difficulty in judging the travel times to libraries when a different library is visited each day. It is therefore a good idea for the documents librarian to plan on being in the documents department one-half hour before the scheduled starting time.

Inspectors prefer finding their own way to the documents department using existing signage; therefore it is not necessary for the documents librarian to search for the inspector. The documents librarian should plan on spending the entire day with the inspector. Arrangements should be made ahead of time to ensure adequate coverage of the documents operation during the compliance review.

Inspections usually begin with an informal meeting between the inspector and the documents librarian (and the regional librarian, if available). This meeting covers general issues relating to the depository operation, such as the mission and size of the library, the depository's primary patrons, and depository services. This is a good time for the documents librarian to ask any questions concerning GPO or the compliance review process.

After this meeting, the inspection follows the workflow of the depository operation, beginning with a tour of the initial processing area. Here handling of depository shipments, record keeping, claiming, and other issues are discussed.

The tour next moves to the documents collection area. The collection is examined to ensure that it is well organized and maintained. If a significant portion of the depository collection is housed off site (e.g., map department, science library, storage, etc.), then these materials will also be examined. Depository microfiche, maps, and equipment are examined. Indexes and data bases of government publications are also reviewed.

After a thorough tour of the depository operation, the inspector, with the assistance of the documents librarian, begins the compliance review. If depository responsibilities are divided among a number of people, then these individuals should also be part of the interview process.

Once the compliance review is done, the inspector will review findings with the documents librarian. If the documents librarian has any questions, they should be raised at this point. Do not wait until after the inspector has left the library.

Depositories are reviewed for compliance with the Instructions to Depository Libraries in seven categories: Collection Development, Bibliographic Control, Maintenance, Human Resources, Physical Facilities, Public Service, and Cooperative Efforts. Regional depositories are reviewed in an eighth category, Regional Services.

Inspectors examine to see if a depository is in compliance or noncompliance in each category. The standards examined are those explained in the latest edition of the Instructions to Depository Libraries. On occasion, the inspection will discover major deficiencies in three or more categories. Noncompliance with the Instructions in three or more categories places a library in probationary status, which requires a reinspection not earlier than 6 months after the initial inspection.

At the end of the inspection day, the inspector visits privately with the library director. The inspector spends approximately 20 minutes summarizing the inspection findings. This is an opportunity for the library director to ask questions about the compliance review and the library's depository operation.

B. Post-Inspection Activities

Immediately after the inspection, the documents staff and the library administration should review the inspection summary. This ensures that the staff and administration are of one mind as to the inspector's comments. It is quite common for librarians to think of additional questions for the inspector after the inspection visit. These questions should be mailed to the inspector at GPO.

Approximately 6-8 weeks after the inspection visit, the inspection report will arrive at the library. The library director, the documents librarian, and the regional librarian each receive a copy of the report. The inspection report should contain no surprises, as the inspector will have already summarized the report findings orally. If anyone has any questions about the compliance review, these questions may be directed to either the Chief, Depository Services, or to the Superintendent of Documents at GPO.

The arrival of the inspection report offers another good opportunity for the library staff and administration to review the findings and develop an action plan for the depository based on these findings.

.C. Summary

The positive impact of a depository inspection can be greatly enhanced when the library properly prepares for the inspection visit. Knowing the objectives and procedures of the inspection can lead to more effective participation in the compliance review process by the library staff. Good communication and cooperation between the documents librarian and the inspector are key elements of a successful inspection.

The inspection affords the documents librarian an excellent opportunity to remind the library administration and staff of the unique benefits and responsibilities of the depository, prompts the staff to engage in a self-study of the depository operation, and enhances and promotes depository services.

By following the procedures outlined above, the documents librarian can ensure a productive inspection process, with benefits to both GPO and the depository library.

.Flow Chart of Inspection Process

[ Back to the Table of Contents ]

Appendix B
Maps Available for Selection

Item Class Title

0080-G A 13.28: Maps and Charts (Forest Service)
0080-H A 1.32: Posters and Maps (Agriculture Department)
0102-B-nos A 57.38: Soil Survey Reports
0121-F A 57.68: Maps and Posters (Soil Conservation Service)
0130-J C 46.17: Maps, Charts, qualified areas. (Economic Development Administration)
0140-B C 3.62/5: Congressional District Atlas
0140-B-02 C 3.62/6: State-County Subdivision Maps
0142-H C 59.15: Maps (Economic Analysis Bureau)
0146-K C 3.62/4: United States Maps, GE-50 Series (Census Bureau)
0146-K C 3.62/8: United States Maps, GE-70 Series
0146-K-01 C 3.62/2: Maps (Census Bureau)
0146-S C 3.62/9: County Block Maps [CD-ROM]
0154-E C 3.279: TIGER/Line Files [CD-ROM]
0191-B-01 C 55.418:1/ Nautical Chart Catalog 1, United States Atlantic and Gulf Coasts
0191-B-02 C 55.418:2/ Nautical Chart Catalog 2, United States Pacific Coast
0191-B-03 C 55.418:3/ Nautical Chart Catalog 3, United States Alaska
0191-B-04 C 55.418:4/ Nautical Chart Catalog 4, United States Great Lakes
0191-B-07 C 55.409/2: Dates of Latest Editions, Nautical Charts and Miscellaneous Maps
0191-B-13 C 55.418/7: Charts (listed in) Nautical Chart Catalog 1
0191-B-14 C 55.418/7: Charts (listed in) Nautical Chart Catalog 2
0191-B-15 C 55.418/7: Charts (listed in) Nautical Chart Catalog 3
0191-B-16 C 55.418/7: Charts (listed in) Nautical Chart Catalog 4
0191-B-17 C 55.418/7: Maps (listed in) Bathymetric Mapping Products Catalog 5, United States Bathymetric and Fishing Maps
0191-B-18 C 55.418:5/ Bathymetric Mapping Products Catalog 5, United States Bathymetric and Fishing Maps
0192-A-01 C 55.411: U.S. Terminal Procedures
0192-A-02 C 55.411/3: Airport Obstruction Charts [OC] Obstruction Data Sheets [ODS]
0192-A-02 C 55.411/3-2: Dates of Latest Editions, Airport Obstruction Charts, Obstruction Data Sheets
0192-A-03 C 55.416: Supplement Alaska
0192-A-04 C 55.416/2: Airport/Facility Directory
0192-A-05 C 55.416/3: Standard Terminal Arrival [STAR] Charts
0192-A-06 C 55.416/4: Alaska Terminal Charts
0192-A-07 C 55.416/5: Standard Instrument Departure [SID] Charts, Eastern U.S.
0192-A-07 C 55.416/6: Standard Instrument Departure [SID] Charts, Western U.S
0192-A-08 C 55.416/7-2: Flight Case Planning Chart (National Ocean Service)
0192-A-09 C 55.416/8: North Atlantic Route Chart (Scale 1:11,000,000)
0192-A-10 C 55.416/9: North Pacific Oceanic Route Chart (Scale 1:12,000,000)
0192-A-10 C 55.416/9-2: North Pacific Oceanic Route Charts (Scale 1:7,000,000)
0192-A-11 C 55.416/10: Sectional Aeronautical Charts (Scale 1:500,000)
0192-A-12 C 55.416/11: Terminal Area Charts (VFR) (Scale 1:250,000)
0192-A-13 C 55.416/12: US Gulf Coast VFR Aeronautical Chart (Scale 1:1,000,000)
0192-A-13 C 55.416/12-6: Grand Canyon VFR Aeronautical Chart
0192-A-14 C 55.416/12-2: Los Angeles Helicopter Route Chart (Scale 1:125,000)
0192-A-14 C 55.416/12-3: New York Helicopter Route Chart (Scale 1:125,000)
0192-A-14 C 55.416/12-4: Baltimore-Washington Helicopter Route Chart (Scale 1:125,000)
0192-A-14 C 55.416/12-5: Chicago Helicopter Route Chart (Scale 1:125,000)
0192-A-15 C 55.416/13: World Aeronautical Charts (Scale 1:1,000,000)
0192-A-16 C 55.416/14: Enroute Area Charts (US) Low Altitude
0192-A-17 C 55.416/15: Enroute Low Altitude Charts (Alaska)
0192-A-18 C 55.416/15-2: Enroute Area Charts (US) Low Altitude
0192-A-19 C 55.416/16: Enroute High Altitude Charts (US)
0192-A-20 C 55.416/16-2: Enroute High Altitude Charts (Alaska)
0192-A-22 C 55.427: Pacific Chart Supplement
0244-A C 13.64: Maps, Charts, Posters (National Bureau of Standards)
0250-E-09 C 55.22: Atlases (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)
0250-F C 55.22/2: Maps (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)
0273-D-04 C 55.195: Daily Weather Maps
0273-D-10 C 55.624: Maps and Charts (Environmental Research Laboratories)
0275-F C 55.109: Monthly and Seasonal Weather Outlook
0275-P C 55.122: Maps and Charts (National Weather Service)
0334-C-01 D 103.49/3: Maps and Posters (Army Corps of Engineers)
0334-C-01 D 103.49/4: Atlases (Army Corps of Engineers)
0337-B-05 D 103.66: Navigation Charts of Various Rivers
0354-A D 109.11: Maps and Atlases (Military Academy, West Point)
0378-E-01 D 5.354: ONC-Operational Navigation Charts
0378-E-02 D 5.354: JNC-Jet Navigation Charts
0378-E-03 D 5.354: GNC-Global Navigation and Planning Charts
0378-E-04 D 5.355: Series 1105-Area Outline Maps
0378-E-05 D 5.354: TPC-Tactical Pilotage Charts
0378-E-06 D 5.351/3: Public Sale Catalog-Topographic Maps & Publications
0378-E-07 D 5.355: Series 1209-Europe
0378-E-08 D 5.351/3-2: Public Sale Catalog-Aeronautical Charts & Publications
0378-E-09 D 5.355: Series 1308-Mid-East Briefing Maps
0378-E-10 D 5.355: Series 5211-Arabian Peninsula
0378-E-11 C 55.440:1/ Nautical Charts and Publications, Region 1, United States and Canada
0378-E-11 C 55.440:2/ Nautical Charts and Publications, Region 2, Central and South America and Antarctica 0378-E-11 C 55.440:3/ Nautical Charts and Publications, Region 3, Western Europe, Iceland, Greenland, and the Arctic
0378-E-11 C 55.440:4/ Nautical Charts and Publications, Region
4, Scandinavia, Baltic, and the Former Soviet Union
0378-E-11 C 55.440:5/ Nautical Charts and Publications, Region 5, Western Africa and the Mediterranean
0378-E-11 C 55.440:6/ Nautical Charts and Publications, Region 6, Indian Ocean
0378-E-11 C 55.440:7/ Nautical Charts and Publications, Region 7, Australia, Indonesia, New Zealand
0378-E-11 C 55.440:8/ Nautical Charts and Publications, Region 8, Oceania
0378-E-11 C 55.440:9/ Nautical Charts and Publications, Region 9, East Asia
0378-E-21 D 5.356: Charts (listed in) Nautical Charts and Publications, Region 1, United States and Canada
0378-E-22 D 5.356: Charts (listed in) Nautical Charts and Publications, Region 2, Central and South America, Antarctica
0378-E-23 D 5.356: Charts (listed in) Nautical Charts and Publications, Region 3, Western Europe, Iceland, Greenland and the Arctic
0378-E-24 D 5.356: Charts (listed in) Nautical Charts and Publications, Region 4, Scandinavia, Baltic, and Soviet Union
0378-E-25 D 5.356: Charts (listed in) Nautical Charts and Publications, Region 5, Western Africa and Mediterranean
0378-E-26 D 5.356: Charts (listed in) Nautical Charts and Publications, Region 6, Indian Ocean
0378-E-27 D 5.356: Charts (listed in) Nautical Charts and Publications, Region 7, Australia, Indonesia, New Zealand
0378-E-28 D 5.356: Charts (listed in) Nautical Charts and Publications, Region 8, Oceania
0378-E-29 D 5.356: Charts (listed in) Nautical Charts and Publications, Region 9, East Asia
0378-E-30 D 5.356: General Nautical Charts and International Chart Series
0378-E-31 D 5.356: Great Circle Sailing, Polar, and Tracking Charts
0378-E-32 D 5.356: Omega Plotting Charts
0378-E-33 D 5.356: Loran C Plotting Charts
0378-E-34 D 5.356: Display Plotting Charts
0379-F-04 D 5.355: Series 2201-Africa
0379-F-05 D 5.355: Series 5103-Administrative Areas of the USSR
0379-F-06 D 5.355: Series 5104-USSR and Adjacent Areas
0379-F-07 D 5.355: Series 5213-SE Asia Briefing Map
0421-E-09 D 301.76/7: Maps (Air Force)
0429-V-05 E 2.15: Maps and Charts (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission)
0430-K-03 E 6.10: Maps (Western Area Power Administration)
0431-J-10 EP 1.99: Maps and Atlases (Environmental Protection Agency)
0438-B E 3.21: Maps and Charts (Energy Information Administration)
0486-P-01 HE 20.9419: Maps (Indian Health Service)
0611-W-nos. I 49.6/7-2: National Wetlands Inventory Maps [MF]
0612 I 49.9: Maps and Charts (Fish and Wildlife Service)
0612-E I 49.6/5: Coast Ecological Inventory
0617 D 5.319: Gazetteers [MF] (Defense Mapping Agency)
0619-G I 19.41/7: List of Geological Survey Geologic & Water-Supply Reports & Maps (various states)
0619-G-01 I 19.79: Maps and Posters (Geological Survey)
0619-G-02 I 19.80: National Mapping Program
0619-G-03 I 19.85: C-Coal Investigations
0619-G-04 I 19.87: GP-Geophysical Investigations
0619-G-05 I 19.88: GQ-Geologic Quadrangle Maps
0619-G-06 I 19.89: HA-Hydrologic Investigations Atlases
0619-G-06 I 19.89/2: Hydrologic Unit Map
0619-G-07 I 19.90: MR-Mineral Investigations Resource Maps
0619-G-08 I 19.91: I-Miscellaneous Geologic Investigations
0619-G-08 I 19.91/2: Circum-Pacific [CP] Map Series
0619-G-09 I 19.92: OC-Oil and Gas Investigation Charts
0619-G-10 I 19.93: OM-Oil and Gas Investigations Maps
0619-G-11 I 19.113: MF-Miscellaneous Field Studies Maps
0619-G-12 I 19.95: SO-Topographic Mapping
0619-G-13 I 19.96: IS-Index to Intermediate Scale Mapping
0619-G-14 I 19.97: OT-Index to Orthophotoquad Mapping
0619-G-14 I 19.97/2: DM-Index to USGS/DMA 1:50,000 Scale 15-minute Quadrangle Mapping
0619-G-14 I 19.97/3: LU-Index to Land Use and Land Cover Maps and Digital Data
0619-G-16 I 53.11/4: BLM Surface Management Status 1:100,000 Scale Maps
0619-G-16 I 53.11/4-2: BLM Surface and Minerals Management Status 1:100,000 Scale Maps
0619-G-17 I 19.98: United States Series of Topographic Maps, Scale 1:250,000
0619-G-18 I 19.99: Alaska 1:250,000 Series
0619-G-19 I 19.100: Antarctica Topographic Series Scale 1:50,000 0619-G-19 I 19.100/2: Antarctica Topographic Series Scale 1:250,000
0619-G-19 I 19.100/3: Antarctica Topographic Series Scale 1:500,000 with contours
0619-G-19 I 19.100/4: Antarctica Topographic Series Scale 1:500,000 without contours
0619-G-19 I 19.100/5: Antarctica Topographic Series Scale 1:1,000,000
0619-G-19 I 19.100/6: Antarctica Photomap
0619-G-21 I 19.106: National Park Series
0619-G-24 I 19.109: Slope Maps
0619-G-25 I 19.110: United States 1:100,000 Scale Series (Intermediate-Scale Maps)
0619-G-26 I 19.111/A: Separate Sheets of Selected Thematic and General Reference Maps from the National Atlas
0619-G-27 I 19.112: Land Use and Land Cover and Associated Maps
0619-G-28 I 19.86: GI-Index to Geologic Mapping of the United States
0619-G-30 I 19.123: United States Base Maps
0619-H-nos. I 19.102: State Map Series (Planimetric, Topographic, and Shaded Relief [various scales]
0619-M-nos. I 19.81: 7.5' Series Quadrangle
0619-M-nos I 19.81/2: 1:50,000 Scale Quadrangle
0619-M-nos I 19.41/6-2: Catalog of Topographic and Other Published Maps
0619-M-nos I 19.41/6-3: Index to Topographic and other Map Coverage
0619-P-nos. I 19.108: County Map Series
0621-E I 19.115/4: FGD (Federal Geographic Data) Newsletter
0621-J I 19.120: Digital Line Graph [CD-ROM]
0621-K I 19.121: Digital Data Series [CD-ROM]
0624-C I 19.70: Flood Prone Areas, various cities (Map Folders)
0624-E I 19.71: Newsletter (Earth Science Information Center)
0624-E-03 I 70.13: Maps (Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service)
0627-C I 20.47: Maps and Atlases (Indian Affairs Bureau)
0629-B I 53.11: Maps and Folders (Bureau of Land Management)
0646-B I 29:66: National Parks and Landmarks
0648-E I 29.88/3: National Historic Trails
0650 I 29.21: National Monuments and Military Parks
0651 I 29.6: National Park Information Circulars
0651 I 29.88/6: National Historic Parks Information Circulars
0651-A I 29.8: Maps (National Park Service)
0651-B I 29.6/2: National Seashores Information Circulars
0651-B-01 I 29.6/3: National Lakeshores Information Circulars
0651-B-02 I 29.6/4: National Rivers Information Circulars
0651-B-03 I 29.6/5: National Scenic Trails Information Circulars
0651-B-04 I 29.6/6: National Historic Site Information Circulars
0654 I 29.39: National Recreational Areas Information Circulars
0664-C I 27.7/4: Maps (Bureau of Reclamation)
0671-A-04 I 72.12/4: OCS Maps (Minerals Management Service) MMS Map Series
0701-G TD 3.16: Maps and Charts (Federal Railroad Administration)
0766-F-03 L 35.23: Maps and Posters (Occupational Safety and Health Administration)
0811-A LC 5.2: General Publications (Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division)
0834-B-01 NS 1.41: Maps and Atlases (National Science Foundation)
0856-A-01 PREX 3.10/4: Maps and Atlases (Central Intelligence Agency)
0856-A-07 PREX 3.15: World Fact Book
0862-B S 1.123: Background Notes, various countries (State Department)
0862-B S 1.123/2: Background Notes, Index
0864-B-06 S 1.33/2: Maps and Atlases (State Department)
0876-A S 1.119/2: Geographic Bulletins (State Department)
0876-A-02 S 1.119/3: International Boundary Studies
0876-A-02 S 1.119/4: Geographic Notes (State Department)
0876-A-04 S 1.119/5: Limits in the Seas (State Department)
0931-G TD 5.47: Maps and Posters (Coast Guard)
0982-G-28 TD 2.37: Maps (Federal Highway Administration)
0987-F VA 1.70: Maps and Atlases (Veterans Administration)
1082-D Y 3.T 25:7 Maps (Tennessee Valley Authority)

[ Back to the Table of Contents ]


1909 Checklist 103, 105-107
Academic library 19
Access 10, 16, 20, 27, 36, 38-39, 41, 42, 44, 53-55, 82, 91-93, 105, 110, 170, 172
Access policy for electronic publications 53-54
Acid-free containers 100
Acquisitions 2, 5
Additions to item selections 60, 70
Addresses v, 5-6, 30-33, 94
Administrative Notes 3, 5, 6, 37, 39, 44, 48, 52, 54, 60, 66, 68, 69, 72, 73, 82, 83, 94, 113
Aeronautical charts 24, 26, 31, 158
Agreement, selective housing 15-17, 39
Amendment of Selection postcards 61, 66
Appellate Court libraries 20, 170
Automated check-in 81-86, 88-89
Automated item number files 66-67
Automatic/Direct mail 5
Availability of Government information 8, 10, 12, 13, 165, 170
Backing up diskettes 41
Basic collection 173-174
Bibliographic access 42, 82, 92
Bibliographic control 2, 3, 29, 58-96, 120
Biennial survey 3, 5, 168, 172
Binding 98, 168
Bureau of Land Management 26, 27, 160
Bureau of the Census 24, 49, 53, 54
Cataloging 2-3, 6, 31, 33, 42, 66, 68, 72, 73, 82, 88, 91, 168
Cataloging and Indexing Program 2
Cataloging Branch 3, 6
Catalogs, bibliographic 8, 12, 31, 42, 60, 82, 105, 166, 167, 170, 172
Catalogs, software/hardware 47
CD v, 21, 36-50, 53, 54, 70, 80, 92, 113
CD-ROM v, 21, 36-50, 80, 92, 113
CD-ROM drive 44
Charts 24, 26, 28, 29, 31, 60, 93, 157-161
Check-in 29, 59, 70, 72, 73, 76-90, 92, 94, 100
Checklist of United States Public Documents 103
Chronic distribution problems 6
Circulation of depository materials 27, 38, 40, 59, 88, 95, 170
Claiming 6, 32, 69, 73, 165, 166, 169
Claims 4, 6, 32, 36, 69, 73-76, 96, 166, 171
Classes added 67
Classification 2, 4, 6, 17, 31, 33, 59, 71, 89-90, 91, 93, 94, 104, 165, 166, 168
Collection development 8-21, 27-28, 33, 37-39, 59, 67, 119, 120
Communications software 45
Compliance review 116-121
Computer printout of item selections 68, 69
Congressional district 8, 10, 11, 18, 20, 110, 112, 166, 167, 172
Continuing education 3
Cooperation 10, 16, 18, 20, 116, 117, 121, 165, 171
Core collections 14, 18-21, 123-156
Correspondence with GPO 5, 32, 169
Court libraries 20, 170
Cumulative Finding Aid for Congressional Bills and Resolutions 4
Damaged depository materials 73, 108, 165
Database v, 3, 40, 42, 51, 52, 53, 55
Database software 45, 46, 53
Dating depository materials 72-73, 93, 168
DDIS 4, 74
Defense Mapping Agency 24, 26, 29, 31, 32, 61, 69, 92, 94
Deletions, item 60, 61, 70
Department of Energy 15, 38, 61, 91
Depository Administration Branch 3, 4
Depository designations 5
Depository Distribution Division 1, 3, 4, 6, 71
Depository Distribution Information System 4, 74
Depository Library Council 8, 36, 37, 116, 164-166, 172
Depository Library Inquiry Form 5, 6, 74, 75, 87, 90
Depository Library number 5, 32, 70, 71
Depository Mailing Branch 4, 6
Depository Processing Branch 4
Depository promotion 110-113
Depository responsibilities 5, 10-11
Depository Services Staff 3, 16, 116
Designation of depository libraries 3, 166-167
Direct mail 5, 68, 70-75
Directory of Computer Software 127
Directory of Computerized Data Files 52, 127
Disaster preparedness 107, 108
Discarding depository materials 13-14, 16, 42-43, 168-169, 172
Discontinued items file 66
Disposal of depository materials 13-14, 16, 42-43, 168-169,
172 Distribution problems 6
DMA 15, 24, 26, 27, 30, 31-32, 69
Documentation for electronic products 37, 40-42, 53, 54
Documentation of depository library procedures 59-65
DOS 41, 45, 47, 48, 50
Dual format 65, 69
Duplicators, microfiche 102
Economic Bulletin Board 51
Electronic bulletin boards v, 36, 51-52
Electronic formats v, 21, 36-39, 51-52
Electronic products 36-55, 65, 71, 76, 92, 95, 98, 126, 155
Electronic publications 36-55, 92
Epi Info 47, 48
Equipment 27, 33, 36-40, 45, 46, 101-102, 171
Explanation of the Superintendent of Documents Classification System 4, 6, 91
EXTRACT 46-50, 53, 54
Fax 5, 6, 32, 74
Federal Bulletin Board 37, 40, 51, 52
Federal Database Finder 52
Federal Depository Library Manual 3, 5
Federal Depository Library Program 2, 3, 10, 12, 13, 16, 36, 55, 58-60, 110, 116, 164
Federal property 58
Files 15, 66-69, 76-89, 91, 94
Filing 91, 94, 101
Floppy disks 44
Free access 16, 36, 52, 55
Fugitive publication inquiry 87
Furniture 27, 40
Geologic and hydrologic maps 25, 29, 31
Geological Survey 24-26, 29-32, 52, 61, 69, 92, 94, 104
Government property 58
GPO cataloging tapes 6, 88
GPO Classification Manual 4, 6, 31, 90, 91, 94
GPO form 3794 5, 75, 87, 90
Guidelines for the Federal Depository Library System [now Program] v, 8, 12, 19, 20, 163-171
Hard disk drive 44
Hard disk management 47-49
Hardware 11, 12, 44, 45
Holdings record 15, 31, 82, 88
Housing of depository materials 15-17, 20, 27, 36, 38-40, 42, 58-59, 67, 93, 170
Human resources 120
Inactive List 6
Inactive or Discontinued Items 4, 66
Index map 29, 31
Inquiry form 5, 6, 74, 75, 87, 90
Inspection of depository libraries 3-5, 116-122
Instructions to Depository Libraries v, 3, 5, 6, 8, 12, 14-17,
28, 39, 58, 69, 73, 81, 83, 88, 91, 94, 116-120, 166, 171
Interlibrary loan 13, 16, 18, 95, 102, 171, 172
International Exchange Service Program 2, 4
Item cards 12, 25, 36, 62-64, 66-68, 165, 168
Item number files 66-68
Item number selection 11, 33, 59-65
Item selection update 4, 6, 16, 27, 32, 60, 61, 67
Item surveys 6, 37, 67
Land use, land cover, and associated maps 26
Law library 20-21
Library Division 3
Library number 5, 32, 70, 71
Library of Congress 2-4, 31, 82, 103, 105, 168
Library Programs Service 2-6, 68, 116, 172
Lighted bin system 4
List of Classes 4, 6, 12, 31, 66, 165
Local area, meeting needs of 8, 20, 27, 167
Local SuDocs number 90
Lost documents 17, 73, 103, 168
LPS organizational structure 3-4
Mailing labels 71
Maintenance of depository materials 98-102, 120, 168-169
Map indexes 25, 29-32
Map shipping lists 69
Maps 24-33, 60, 69, 70, 92-94, 95, 98, 103-107, 112, 120, 157-161
Memorandum of Agreement (selective housing) 16-17, 39
Microfiche 4, 6, 12, 65, 68-72, 74, 76, 77, 80, 90, 91, 95,
98, 100-102 Microfiche conservation 100-101
Microform 12, 100-103, 165, 170
Minimum Technical Guidelines, Recommended 44-45
Missing or delayed shipments 6
Missing shipping lists 5, 74
Modem 44, 45
Monthly Catalog 3, 6, 21, 24, 31, 42, 68, 89, 90, 171
National Archives 103, 166
National Ocean Service 24, 26, 29, 31, 32, 92
National Park Service 26
National Trade Data Bank 42, 53, 113
Nautical charts 26, 29, 31, 93
Needs and Offers 72, 76
Networking 113
New item 65, 67
New series 67
Non-depository materials 12, 20, 51, 53, 58, 77, 89-90
Northeast Documents Conservation Center 105
NOS maps 24, 26
NTIS 52, 64
OCLC 42, 66, 68, 82, 89
On-line systems 51-52
Operating system software 45
Organization of the collection 59, 105, 168
Paper clips 101
Paper conservation 99
Physical facilities 120
Piece level record of holdings 58
Pointing device 44
Posters 60, 63, 70, 72, 112, 113
Preservation 58, 59, 93, 98-99, 102, 104, 105-108
Preservation packet 105
PRF 72, 89, 113
Printer (computer) 44, 45, 49
Probationary status 120
Procedures manual 59, 96
Processing depository materials 11, 27, 29, 40-43, 58-59,
70-96, 120, 170
PROFILE software 48
Promotion, depository library 110-113, 169
Public awareness 42, 110-113
Public library 18, 38, 111
Public service 15, 33, 82, 89, 111-113, 120, 166, 170, 172
Publication inquiry 87
Publications Reference File 72, 89, 113
Publicity 112-113
Quadrangle maps 25, 93
Rare and valuable documents 98, 103
Reader/Printers, microfiche 102, 170
Recommended Minimum Technical Guidelines 44-45
Record keeping 15, 58, 70, 120
Records, depository library 15, 17, 29, 40, 66, 76-89, 91, 96,
111, 169 Reference service 29, 30, 37, 53-55, 59, 172
Regional depository libraries 3, 5, 13, 16, 19, 20, 27, 69, 120, 167, 168, 171, 172
Replacement copies of depository materials 32, 73
Retention 13, 39, 76, 166
RLIN 42, 66, 82, 89
Rubber bands 100, 101
Rubber stamp 71
Security of depository materials 59, 72, 89, 98, 104-105, 107
Selection of depository materials 8-21, 25-29, 33, 37-39, 59-65, 92
Selection update, item 4, 6, 16, 27, 32, 60, 61, 67
Selective housing 13, 15-17, 20, 27, 38, 59, 113, 119
Self-study 118-119, 121
Separate shipments 4, 70, 71, 73, 94
Serial Set 3, 6
Service to the public 15, 82, 89, 111-113, 120, 166, 170, 172
Shareware 37, 47, 48
Shelflist 15, 29, 76-89, 91, 94
Shelving 31-32, 59, 91, 99
Shipments 4, 6, 25, 69-71, 73, 74, 172
Shipping lists 4, 6, 31, 32, 37, 66, 67, 69-74, 76, 81, 88, 93, 94, 168
Shipping list register 69, 73, 74
Software 11, 12, 36-38, 41, 42, 44-47, 48, 49, 50, 53, 54, 82, 88
Soil Conservation Service 24, 52
Space 11, 12, 15, 18, 24, 105, 167, 169-170, 172
Special topographic and other maps 26
Spreadsheet software 45, 50
Staffing 38, 39, 46, 59, 111, 169
Stamp, rubber 71
Stamping depository materials 29, 71-73, 81, 92, 93, 100
Stamping nautical charts 93
Standards 44-45, 172
State Appellate Court 20, 167
State Data Center Bulletin Board 48, 51
State library 167
State plans 11
Statistics 29, 42, 59, 70, 72, 73, 95, 166-168
Status and progress of operations maps 25
Storage of depository materials 33, 40, 41, 91, 93, 98-101, 120, 170
Subject Bibliographies 113, 136
Superintendent of Documents 2, 3, 117, 165-167, 172
Superseded documents 14, 28, 42, 113, 169
Superseded List 3, 5, 14, 16, 17, 76, 94, 169
Supplies 27, 70-71, 77
Supreme Court files 51
Surveys, item 4, 6, 16, 17, 37, 67
Technical Guidelines, Recommended Minimum 44-45
Technical processing 29-32, 40-43, 58-96
Termination of depository libraries 3
Theft 72, 73, 98, 107
Title 44 2, 13, 16, 17, 28, 39, 116, 117, 119, 165, 166, 168, 172
Topographic quadrangles 25, 29, 31
Training 50, 54, 89, 96, 111
Transfer of depository materials 15-17, 103-105
U.S. Geological Survey 24-26, 29-32, 52, 61, 69, 92, 94, 104
U.S. Government Books 113, 136
Union List of Item Selections 4, 25, 68
United States Code 2, 13, 16, 17, 28, 39, 113, 116, 117, 119, 147, 172, 174
Update to the List of Classes 66
User needs 10, 11, 14
USGS 24-26, 29-32, 69
Weeding depository collections 13-14
Word processing software 41, 45, 47, 50
Workstation management 49-50

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