Subject Cataloging: Subject Heading Proposals, Background and Tips

GPO proposes new subject authority records, and changes to existing ones, according to the instructions in the Library of Congress' (LC) Subject Headings Manual (SHM).If a subject heading is needed for the resource cataloged, that is not found in OCLC's subject authority file, or if the heading is found but requires additional authority work, such as the addition of cross-references, the cataloger creates a new or change subject proposal in LC's Classification Web system, following SACO procedures. The new proposed subject heading may be entered in the bibliographic record before being approved by LC, as long as the record is entered at level I, and not at the PCC level. If catalogers are not sure whether to make a proposal or not, they should ask the SACO liaison before beginning any work.

Tips and Instructions

Internet Research

When researching the Internet for sources, a cataloger will frequently find links in one source that will lead him/her to other sources. This is good. Don't forget to circle back to the original source and close the loop, picking up other links that are found there if necessary.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_nose_syndrome: click on "References." Note the high quality of many of these sources (the second reference = the journal, Science).

After linking to one of these sources, the cataloger will want to return to this page, in order to research other sources found there. One method is to open a second tab or window, always keeping this bibliography open in the first window or tab, so that the cataloger can always return to the original "jumping off point."

SHM Subject Headings Manual

Catalogers should utilize the search function and index, in addition to the table of contents and/or opening the relevant sections. For example, if you are proposing a specific riot, look up "riots." If you are proposing a specific fire, look up "fires."

Searching Minaret

For searching, catalogers must use Minaret (Class Web), as opposed to, or in addition to, OCLC. This is because Minaret is the most up-to-date system, and includes subject proposals. OCLC is not as current, and lacks subject proposals. Catalogers may search OCLC if they are more comfortable with its interface and features, but they then must still additionally search Minaret.

Do NOT search: http://authorities.loc.gov/.

When searching in Minaret, select "Browse and Propose a Change to an Existing Record" from the Subject Heading Proposal Menu. This will search both approved and proposed subjects in one search. It is the only selection needed for all searching in the Minaret system. Please use the instructions below as a supplement to those listed in the References section below.

1. This will put you into a left-anchored Browse search. Use this when desired. Otherwise, select the "Search" button at the top left.

2. Then, unless you are searching for a record number, search by either "Keyword" for greater retrieval, or by "Subject Heading" to browse the indexes for references (4XXs, 5XXs) and headings (1XXs). Note: searching by "Subject Heading" will perform left-anchored searches, while searching by "Keyword" will search all positions of these tracings (1XXs, 4XXs, 5XXs).

3. When you are ready to perform a new search, select the "Reset" button at the top, second from the left.

4. After viewing a MARC Record, select the "Close" button at the top, second from the left.

Additional Minaret (Class Web) Tips

1. When searching, a useful method is to retrieve a list of related subject headings by searching a broader term (BT).

2. For entering diacritics for degree, minutes, and seconds in the 670 field of Geographic subject proposals: copy and paste from the 670 field of an approved record (with an LCCN beginning with "sh") in Minaret. For other diacritics, copy and paste from OCLC or Aleph.

Examples of records to copy and paste from:

sh2013000196: 151  Crater Range (Ariz.)

sh2013000911: 151  Mattawoman Creek (Md.)

sh2013000374: 151  Qijiawan River (Taiwan)

sh2013000378: 151  Calawah River (Wash.)

3. Use the dollar sign ($) for the delimiter symbol in the tracings (1XX, 4XX, 5XX) and 67X fields.

4. When entering a heading with one or more subdivisions in the 952 (Note) field, do not input the delimiter symbol or letter. Instead, connect the subdivisions with a dash, e.g.: Small business—Finance. If you input the dollar sign ($) for the delimiter symbol in the 952 field, the system will remove it plus all subsequent text from the 952 field.

5. When placing your different categories of references (Used For (UFs), Broader Terms (BTs), and Related Terms (RTs)) in alphabetical order, use the filing rule that "nothing comes before something." If you consider a space to be "nothing," then:

450    EV charging stations

450    EVSE

6. Bibliographic File Maintenance (BFM) in the proposal form is optional. This is the 952 field that says "Bib. records to be changed:" You need not research this. If you happen to come across LC records which would require BFM (Bibliographic File Maintenance) due to your proposal, you may enter these, since they are readily available. In certain situations, this may improve the chances of your proposal being approved.

7. While inputting your proposal in the Minaret system, you may wish to save at least every hour, in order to avoid timing out and losing your data. To initially obtain the LCCN (sp number), select "Save" or "Save and Close" if using Mozilla Firefox, but only select "Save" if using Internet Explorer.

8. Update and resave your proposal in Minaret as often as you like. Keep a record of your sp number. However, once you email LC, you may no longer update your proposal.

Scope Notes

Include a scope note in your proposal whenever appropriate. This will improve the likelihood of obtaining full approval, without the proposal being returned for further revision.

Use of the Dictionary

Utilize Webster's Third New International Dictionary (Web. 3) whenever there is a chance that your term(s) may be found there. If not found, enter "Web. 3" in the 675 field of your proposal.

Use of Wikipedia

You may consult and cite Wikipedia as a source. However, always try to use other sources in addition to it. For topics of a current nature that have not yet found their way into the literature, Wikipedia and online newspapers/news services may be your only relevant sources. For discipline-specific topics, such as those in medicine, biology, agriculture, engineering, computer science, geography, etc., you are better off consulting discipline-specific government and private sources rather than Wikipedia. In these cases, the list of references in a Wikipedia article, may still come in handy, by leading you to journal articles and other relevant sources.  

Use of LCSH as a Thesaurus

LCSH, as a thesaurus, has a practical bent, and is based on actual usage rather than on exact technical definitions, differences in definitions, "accepted" terms vs. variant terms, etc., which might exist, but perhaps not have entered into common use. For examples of this, see the following records:

 1. Medical records—Data processing sh85083013

 2. Interstitial cystitis sh90000763

From the work cataloged for this record: "Because IC varies so much in symptoms and severity, most researchers believe it is not one, but several diseases. In recent years, scientists have started to use the terms bladder pain syndrome (BPS) or painful bladder syndrome (PBS) to describe cases with painful urinary symptoms that may not meet the strictest definition of IC. The term IC/PBS includes all cases of urinary pain that can't be attributed to other causes, such as infection or urinary stones. The term interstitial cystitis, or IC, is used alone when describing cases that meet all of the IC criteria established by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)."

The decision was made to ignore the indications in the paragraph above, that "painful bladder syndrome" is different than "Interstitial cystitis," albeit closely related. Instead, "painful bladder syndrome" was added as a UF reference for "interstitial cystitis," in agreement with other sources.

3. Gaura neomexicana   sh2013001721

670 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS), June 5, 2013: $b (Oenothera coloradensis ssp. neomexicana, synonyms: Gaura neomexicana, New Mexico beeblossom)

In the source cited above, Oenothera coloradensis ssp. neomexicana is identified as the "accepted name," while "Gaura neomexicana" is identified as a "synonym (not accepted)." However, the decision was made to take the "accepted name" with a grain of salt, since it seems less common than the name found in the other sources. Therefore, this "accepted name" was entered as a variant (UF).   


Class Web or Minaret

SACO Resources

SHM Subject Headings Manual

These selected sections comprise basic training, to be completed by catalogers before making their first subject heading proposal.

  • Under "Making Subject Heading Proposals"
    • H 187
    • H 200: numbers 3-21
    • H 202
    • H 203
  • Under "Formulating Subject Headings"
    • H 285
    • H 290
    • H 306
    • Just note the titles of the other instruction sheets in this section, from H 310—H 364
  • Under "References"
    • H 370
    • H 371
    • H 373
    • H 374    
    • H 375
    • H 400 (Scope Notes)
  • SHM H 405 Name vs. Subject Authority File
  • In SHM, open up the following sections, and simply note the titles of the instruction sheets within:
    • Geographic Headings and Subdivisions
    • Subdivisions Controlled by Pattern Headings
    • Special Topics, Materials, Subdivisions, etc.  

Print Resources

  • Webster's Third New International Dictionary (Web. 3)
  • National Register of Historic Places
  • Various discipline specific dictionaries, thesauri, etc.  

Resources for Geographic Proposals

Geographic Print Resources

  • National Register of Historic Places
  • Columbia Gazetteer of the World, 1998
  • Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary, 3rd edition
  • Rand McNally ... commercial atlas & marketing guide
  • Rand McNally's The New International Atlas
  • The Times Atlas of the World  

Examples of GPO Subject Proposals

  • White-nose syndrome sh2009010759
  • Wallow Fire, 2011 sh2012002192
  • Robotic exoskeletons sh2010011967
  • Battery charging stations (Electric vehicles) sh2012003590
  • Chemicals
    • Butoxyethanol acetate sh2009009283
    • Aluminum oxynitride spinel sh2011002508
  • Drugs
    • Dextromethorphan sh2007010731
    • Rosiglitazone sh2009002732
  • Buildings
    • William T. Trant Post Office Building (Westfield, Mass.)  sh2012002551
  • Geographics
    • Namonuito Islands (Micronesia) sh2012000694
    • Carroll Creek (Ala.) sh2012000461
    • Driftless Area National Wildlife Refuge sh2012001808  
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GPO Cataloging Guidelines

Cataloging/Metadata Policy-making Process
Cataloging Policy and Documentation Committee (CPDC)
GPO Cataloging Guidelines Review and Revision
GPO Cataloging Guidelines: Organization and Structure
List of Standards
Other Metadata Schemes
Cooperative Associations
Bibliographic Cataloging
Authoritative Status of the Catalog of U.S. Government Publications
GPO Records in OCLC and Record Maintenance
What LSCM Catalogs
Cataloging/Metadata Encoding Levels Policies
1.0 Purpose
2.0 Background and Related Documents
3.0 Guidelines and Standards Consulted
4.0 Coordination with Collection Development Procedures
5.0 General Principles
5.1 General Cataloging/Metadata Workflows - Individual Records
5.2 Project and Retrospective Cataloging
5.3 Batch Processing of Record Sets
5.4 Categories of Federal Information Products
5.5 922 Codes
6.0 Cataloging Levels Chart
Treatment Decisions for Collections and Analytics
Factors to Consider for the Treatment Decision
Separate Record Policy
Original Cataloging
Copy Cataloging
Adapting PCC Pre-RDA Records
Adapting Non-PCC Pre-RDA Records
Authenticating Non-PCC Pre-RDA Records as PCC
Replacing and Exporting Records
Cataloging Non-distributed Formats (for C&I)
GPO Sales Program Information
Authority Records
General MARC Field Policies
Formats, Modes of Issuance, Etc.
Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PCC) Policy on ISBD Punctuation
Fixed Fields
ELvl - Encoding Level
Variable Fields
037 - Source of Acquisition
040 - Cataloging Source
050 - LC Call Number
060 - NLM Call Number
070 - NAL Call Number
082 - Dewey Decimal Classification Number
100/700 – Personal Name Access Points
100 - Principal Creator – Personal Name
110/111 - Principal Creator - Corporate/Meeting Name
130/240 - Unique Title for Work or Expression
130 - Unique Title for Work or Expression - No Principal Creator Present
240 - Unique Title for Work or Expression - Principal Creator Present
245 - Title Statement and 246 - Varying Form of Title
245 $c - SOR
246 - Varying Form of Title
250 - Edition Statement
264 - Production, Publication
GPO Sales Statement
300 - Physical Description
336 - Content, 337 - , 338 -
490 - Series Statement Field
500, 588 - Title Source, Source of Description Notes
500 - General Note
536 - Funding Info Note
546 - Language Note
6XX - Subject Access Fields
600 - Personal Name Subject
700 - Personal Name Associated with a Work
710/711 - Corporate/Meeting Name Associated with a Work
76X to 78X - Linking Entries
776 - Additional Physical Form Entry
856 – Electronic Location and Access – Historic URLs
074 GPO Item Number
Item Number Corrections
086 SuDoc Number
Sources to Consult
Background and General Instructions
Serials and Integrating Resources
Related Chapters/Sections
Fixed Fields
DtSt: Type of Date/Publication Status
Variable Fields
020 – ISBN
037 – Source of Acquisition
088 - Report Numbers
Types of Numbers NOT Recorded in the 088 Field
Mail Stop and Routing Codes
245 ǂc - Statement of Responsibility
250 - Edition Statement
300 - Physical Description
ǂa – Extent, Complicated or Irregular Paging
ǂa – Multipart Monographs
ǂa – Sheets
500 - General Note
500 – Title Source Note
Report Numbers
Sales Information Notes
Shipping List Notes
Multipart Monographs
505 - Formatted Contents Note
520 - Summary, etc.
536 - Funding Information Note
588 - Source of Description Note
Single-part Online Monographs Examples
Multipart Monographs Examples
Related Works and Expressions
Related Chapters/Sections
Related Resources
Related Works and Expressions - Overview
Frequently Revised Monographs
Language Editions and Translations
Language editions
Parallel text edition
Analytical Access Point(s)
NEPA Documents
Revised Editions
Definition / Context
Precataloging Decision-making
Logistical Note for Bibliographic File Maintenance for Multiple Editions
Detailed Instructions and Examples for Revised Editions
New Expression – Revision and earlier edition share all common authorized access point elements
New Expression – Revision with different title proper
New Expression – Revision’s authorized access point constructed according to a different descriptive convention
New Work – Revised edition with a new primary author
New Work – Revised editions with the same title proper and primary author (or editor) and new content
Ambiguous Status – Appearance of additional authors
Summary included within resource being cataloged
Summary separate from resource being cataloged
Unspecified Relationships and MARC 787
Current RDA Policies and MARC Fields (February 2015- )
MARC Fields
Overview of Previous Microfiche Policies
Re-Cataloging Microfiche
Congressional Publications
Mode of Issuance - Hearings
Encoding Level and PCC Authentication
050 - Library of Congress Call Number
086 - Superintendent of Docs Classification Number
088 - Report Number (House Hearings)
Serial Numbers with Committee Designations
Serial Numbers without Committee Designations
Serial Numbers without Any Designations
1XX - Principal Creator
Presidential Materials
Other Agencies
Senate Treaty Documents
Joint Hearings
Committees or Subcommittees
Individual Authors
No Committees, Subcommittees, or Individual Authors
Other Types of Publications
Joint Committee on Taxation
130/240 - Unique Title for Work
245 - Title Statement
245 ǂa – Title Statement
245 ǂb – Remainder of Title
246 - Varying Form of Title
264 - Production, Publication, Distribution, Manufacture, and Copyright Notice
300 ǂb – Other Physical Details
500 - Serial Number Note
500 Shipping List Note
504 - Bibliography, etc. Note
505 - Formatted Contents Note
Star Prints
050 - Library of Congress Call Number
086 - SuDoc Number
250 - Edition Statement
500 - General Note
086 - SuDoc Number
300 - Accompanying Material
500 - General Note
856 - PURL
086 - SuDoc Number
300 ǂe – Accompanying Material
500 - General Note
856 - PURL
Technical Reports
Identification of Technical Reports
Monograph or Serial
Sources of Information
Cataloging Instructions
Fixed Fields
Public and Private Laws
Public Laws
Private Laws
074 - Item Number
086 - SuDoc Number
490 and 830 - Series
546 and 041- Language
Senate Treaty Document Series (Y 1.1/4:)
Cartographic Materials
Background and Sources Consulted
Brochures and Visitor Guides Treated as Maps
BLM Surface/Mineral Management Maps
Serial Treatment
Encoding Level
086 - SuDoc Number
1XX - Principal Creator
130/240 - Unique Title for Work
245 - Title Statement
255 - Cartographic Math Data
300 - Physical Description
500 - Notes
655 - Genre Term
Audiovisual Resources
Scope of the Format Visual Resources
Definitions of Types of Visual Resources
Bibliographic Treatment in the CGP
Analytics of Videos
Collections of Videos
Analytics of Still Images
Collections of Still Images
MARC Fields for Visual Resources
300 - Physical Description
655 - Genre/Form Terms
Continuing Resources
Selective Registration for ISSN Assignments
GPO’s automated submission of continuing resources for ISSN assignments
GPO’s selective registration of continuing resources for ISSN assignments
Inclusion criteria
Exclusion criteria
Sources to Consult
Policies, Procedures, Practices
Definition of Serial
Monograph vs. Serial and Frequency of Issuance
When Mode of Issuance Is Ambiguous
Replacement of Monograph Records with a Serial Record
Ceased Serials Cataloged for the First Time GPO
Numbering–Exceptions to RDA Principle of Transcription
Notification of Cataloging Updates via WebTech Notes
Notification of OAM for Serials Harvesting
Updating Collections of Serials
MARC Fields
Leader /17 (Encoding Lvl) & 042
010 - LC Control Number
022 - ISSN
050 – LC Call Number
060 – NLM Call Number
070 – NAL Call Number
074 - Item Number
082 - Dewey Decimal Classification Number
086 - SuDoc Number
246- Varying Form of Title
264 - Production, Publication
300 - Physical Description (300|a )
362, 588, and Any Field Where Designation Is Represented
500 - Distribution Note
515 - Numbering Peculiarities
538 - System Details Note
588 - DBO/Source of Title Proper Note
Language for “Description Based on” Note
Print Version Record Used As Basis of Description for Online Version
76X--78X– Linking Entry Fields
776 – Additional Physical Form
Cessation of print version, continuation online version
Cessation of serial due to format and title change
Microform serials and GPO practices for linkages
Former, discontinued practice for linking microform serials to other manifestations
Current practice for linking microform serials to other manifestations
Other Considerations for Linking Entry Fields
Parallel formats
Works linked but not described in bibliographic records
856 – Electronic Location & Access
Single- vs. Separate-Record Approach and PURLs
Appendix A: Bibliographic File Maintenance: Deletion of Records from the CONSER Database
Appendix B: Where to Find Certain CONSER Procedures
Integrating Resources
General MARC Field Policies
086 - SuDoc Number
130 - Authorized Access Point for Work
245 - Title
Other Title Information ($b)
Statement of Responsibility ($c)
300 - Physical Description
5XX - Notes
Order of 5xx Notes
588 - DBO/Source of title proper note
580/760-787 - Linking Relationships
FDLP Web Archive Resources
Computer Files
Procedures to Convert Type "M" to Type "A" Records
Disposition of eBooks on CD-ROM
MARC Fields
020 – International Standard Book Number
347 – Digital file characteristics
856 – Electronic location and access
New records, or non-GPO adapted records
Existing GPO records
955 – Local GPO notes
New record, acquired directly by cataloger
New record, acquired by acquisitions team
Existing GPO record, updated to include eBook
Non-Distributed eBooks
074 – Item number
500 – General note on distribution
588 – Description Based on Note
856 – Electronic location and access
OCLC Holdings
Export to Aleph
Resources to Consult
Name Authorities
Instructions to Consult
Policy Overview
Personal Names
Congressional Publications
Other Publications
Corporate/Conference Names
Variant Names
Conference Authority Records
Programs and Projects
Corporate Names for Parks, Forests, Preserves, etc.
Works and Expressions
Multipart (Collective) Titles
Series-Like Phrases
Places (Jurisdictional Geographic Names)
General Procedures
Optional Fields
Research in OCLC
How Much Research Should Be Performed . . . ?
When to Consult Additional Sources
Tips for Contacting Agencies
General Field Specific Guidelines
043 - Geographic Area Code
1xx and 4xx
4XX - See from Tracing
5XX - See Also from Tracing
670 - Source Data Found
678 - Biographical or Historical Data
781 - Subdivision Linking Entry - Geographic Subdivision
General Policies
Hybrid Records in RDA Name Authority Records
When to Recode an Existing NAR to RDA
How to Recode an Existing NAR from AACR2 to RDA
Field Specific Guidelines
$u and $v in the 046 and 3XX Optional Fields
Source of Information: 670 vs. $v in the 046 and 3XX Optional Fields
046 – Special Coded Dates
$2 – Source of Term
$s (start date or period) $t (end date or period)
336 - Content Type
368 - Other Attributes of Person or Corporate Body
370 - Associated Place
371 – Address
372 – Field of Activity
373 – Association Group
377 – Associated Language
4XX – See from Tracing
5XX – See Also from Tracings
670 – Source Data Found
678 – Biographical or Historical Data
Personal Names
Procedure for ECIP
Procedure for CRS Reports
General Instructions
046 – Special Coded Dates (RDA 9.3)
$s and $t in the 046 and 3XX Optional Fields
100 – Authorized Access Point
$q – Fuller Form of Name
$d – Birth and/or Death Date
$c – Titles and Other Words (Professions) Associated with a Name
368 - Other Attributes of Person or Corporate Body
370 - Associated Place (RDA 9.8-9.11)
371 - Address (RDA 9.12)
372 – Field of Activity (RDA 9.15)
373 – Associated Group (RDA 9.13: Affiliation)
374 – Profession or Occupation (RDA 9.16)
375 - Gender (RDA 9.7)
377 - Language (RDA 9.14)
378 – Fuller Form of Name (RDA 9.5)
400 - See from Tracing-Personal Name
510 - Related Corporate Body
678 - Biographical or Historical Data (RDA 9.17)
Corporate Names
Sources to Consult
Before You Begin
MARC Fields
110 - Corporate Name
Places Associated with the Corporate Body
Associated Institution
Names Containing the Word "Services"
678 - Biographical or Historical Data (11.11)
111- Meeting Names
368 - Other Attributes of Corporate Body, $a Type of Corporate Body
370 - Associated Place
372 - Field of Activity
373 - Associated Group (11.5)
410/411 - See from Tracing
Initialism or Acronyms in Capital Letters
Variants for Names Containing Ampersands
410 - See from Tracing - Corporate Name
Variant Names Entered Subordinately
Place Names As Jurisdictions vs. Locations
Variant Names Entered Directly
Variants for Names Containing the Term “Inc.” or “Incorporated”
411 - See from Tracing - Meeting Name
Additional Identifying Element(s) for Initialisms/Acronyms in Variants for Meeting Names
510/511 – See Also from Tracing
Relationships and Relationship Designators
510 - See Also from Tracing - Corporate Name
Hierarchical Superior Relationship
667 - Nonpublic Gen Note
Works and Expressions
046 – Special Coded Dates (RDA 6.4 and 6.10)
130 – Authorized Access Point
336 – Content Type (RDA 6.9)
370 – Associated Place (RDA 6.5)
377 – Associated Language (RDA 6.11)
380 – Form of Work (RDA 6.3)
410/430 – Variant Authorized Access Points
667 – Nonpublic General Note
670 – Source Data Found
043 - Geographic Area Code
451 - See From Tracing
670 - Source Data Found
781 - Subdivision Linking Entry-Geographic Subdivision
General Policies
Hybrid Records in RDA NARs
When to Recode an Existing NAR to RDA
How to Recode an Existing NAR from AACR2 to RDA
Field Specific Guidelines
5XX - See Also from Tracings
Personal Names
100 – Authorized Access Point
$q - Fuller Form of Name
400 – See from Tracing-Personal Name
678 – Biographical or Historical Data (RDA 9.17)
Corporate Bodies
Auth Status - 008/33
110 - Corporate Name
111 – Meeting Name
410/411 – Variant Name
5XX – See Also from Tracings
670 - Source Data Found
043 - Geographic Area Code
451 - See from Tracing
670 – Source Data Found
781 - Subdivision Linking Entry-Geographic Subdivision
Subject Cataloging
General Policies
LC Subject Headings
NASA Thesaurus Terms As Subject Headings
MESH, NAL, and Other Non-LC Subject Headings
LC Genre/Form Terms for Library and Archival Materials
Adding General LCGFT to Bibliographic Records
Background Resources for LCGFT
Adding LCGFT to Cartographic Records
Adding LCGFT to Audiovisual Records
Subject Heading Proposals, Background, and Tips
Tips and Instructions
Internet Research
Subject Headings Manual
Searching Minaret
Add'l Minaret (Class Web) Tips
Scope Notes
Use of the Dictionary
Use of Wikipedia
Use of LSCH As a Thesaurus
Class Web or Minaret
SACO Resources
Subject Headings Manual
Print Resources
Resources for Geographic Proposals
Geographic Print Resources
Examples of GPO Subject Proposals
Subject Heading Proposals, Workflow
Submitting SACO Proposals for Internal Review
Producing Associated Bib Records; Exporting Subject Authority Records
Submitting SACO Proposals to the Library of Congress
Updating Aleph Authority File
Name vs Subject Authority File
Name Headings As Subjects
Special Topics, Materials, Subdivisions, Etc.
Environmental Impact Statements
Legal Topics
Other Metadata Schemes
Dublin Core
Initialisms and Acronyms
List of Major Changes to the Cataloging Guidelines

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Please submit your questions about the GPO Cataloging Guidelines via askGPO by choosing the “Federal Depository Library Program” tile and selecting the category “Cataloging/Metadata (Policy and Records).