FDLP

Subject Cataloging: Subject Heading Proposals, Background and Tips

GPO proposes new subject authority records, and changes to existing ones, according to the instructions in the Library of Congress' (LC) Subject Headings Manual (SHM).If a subject heading is needed for the resource cataloged, that is not found in OCLC's subject authority file, or if the heading is found but requires additional authority work, such as the addition of cross-references, the cataloger creates a new or change subject proposal in LC's Classification Web system, following SACO procedures. The new proposed subject heading may be entered in the bibliographic record before being approved by LC, as long as the record is entered at level I, and not at the PCC level. If catalogers are not sure whether to make a proposal or not, they should ask the SACO liaison before beginning any work.

Tips and Instructions

Internet Research

When researching the Internet for sources, a cataloger will frequently find links in one source that will lead him/her to other sources. This is good. Don't forget to circle back to the original source and close the loop, picking up other links that are found there if necessary.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_nose_syndrome: click on "References." Note the high quality of many of these sources (the second reference = the journal, Science).

After linking to one of these sources, the cataloger will want to return to this page, in order to research other sources found there. One method is to open a second tab or window, always keeping this bibliography open in the first window or tab, so that the cataloger can always return to the original "jumping off point."

SHM Subject Headings Manual

Catalogers should utilize the search function and index, in addition to the table of contents and/or opening the relevant sections. For example, if you are proposing a specific riot, look up "riots." If you are proposing a specific fire, look up "fires."

Searching Minaret

For searching, catalogers must use Minaret (Class Web), as opposed to, or in addition to, OCLC. This is because Minaret is the most up-to-date system, and includes subject proposals. OCLC is not as current, and lacks subject proposals. Catalogers may search OCLC if they are more comfortable with its interface and features, but they then must still additionally search Minaret.

Do NOT search: http://authorities.loc.gov/.

When searching in Minaret, select "Browse and Propose a Change to an Existing Record" from the Subject Heading Proposal Menu. This will search both approved and proposed subjects in one search. It is the only selection needed for all searching in the Minaret system. Please use the instructions below as a supplement to those listed in the References section below.

1. This will put you into a left-anchored Browse search. Use this when desired. Otherwise, select the "Search" button at the top left.

2. Then, unless you are searching for a record number, search by either "Keyword" for greater retrieval, or by "Subject Heading" to browse the indexes for references (4XXs, 5XXs) and headings (1XXs). Note: searching by "Subject Heading" will perform left-anchored searches, while searching by "Keyword" will search all positions of these tracings (1XXs, 4XXs, 5XXs).

3. When you are ready to perform a new search, select the "Reset" button at the top, second from the left.

4. After viewing a MARC Record, select the "Close" button at the top, second from the left.

Additional Minaret (Class Web) Tips

1. When searching, a useful method is to retrieve a list of related subject headings by searching a broader term (BT).

2. For entering diacritics for degree, minutes, and seconds in the 670 field of Geographic subject proposals: copy and paste from the 670 field of an approved record (with an LCCN beginning with "sh") in Minaret. For other diacritics, copy and paste from OCLC or Aleph.

Examples of records to copy and paste from:

sh2013000196: 151  Crater Range (Ariz.)

sh2013000911: 151  Mattawoman Creek (Md.)

sh2013000374: 151  Qijiawan River (Taiwan)

sh2013000378: 151  Calawah River (Wash.)

3. Use the dollar sign ($) for the delimiter symbol in the tracings (1XX, 4XX, 5XX) and 67X fields.

4. When entering a heading with one or more subdivisions in the 952 (Note) field, do not input the delimiter symbol or letter. Instead, connect the subdivisions with a dash, e.g.: Small business—Finance. If you input the dollar sign ($) for the delimiter symbol in the 952 field, the system will remove it plus all subsequent text from the 952 field.

5. When placing your different categories of references (Used For (UFs), Broader Terms (BTs), and Related Terms (RTs)) in alphabetical order, use the filing rule that "nothing comes before something." If you consider a space to be "nothing," then:

450    EV charging stations

450    EVSE

6. Bibliographic File Maintenance (BFM) in the proposal form is optional. This is the 952 field that says "Bib. records to be changed:" You need not research this. If you happen to come across LC records which would require BFM (Bibliographic File Maintenance) due to your proposal, you may enter these, since they are readily available. In certain situations, this may improve the chances of your proposal being approved.

7. While inputting your proposal in the Minaret system, you may wish to save at least every hour, in order to avoid timing out and losing your data. To initially obtain the LCCN (sp number), select "Save" or "Save and Close" if using Mozilla Firefox, but only select "Save" if using Internet Explorer.

8. Update and resave your proposal in Minaret as often as you like. Keep a record of your sp number. However, once you email LC, you may no longer update your proposal.

Scope Notes

Include a scope note in your proposal whenever appropriate. This will improve the likelihood of obtaining full approval, without the proposal being returned for further revision.

Use of the Dictionary

Utilize Webster's Third New International Dictionary (Web. 3) whenever there is a chance that your term(s) may be found there. If not found, enter "Web. 3" in the 675 field of your proposal.

Use of Wikipedia

You may consult and cite Wikipedia as a source. However, always try to use other sources in addition to it. For topics of a current nature that have not yet found their way into the literature, Wikipedia and online newspapers/news services may be your only relevant sources. For discipline-specific topics, such as those in medicine, biology, agriculture, engineering, computer science, geography, etc., you are better off consulting discipline-specific government and private sources rather than Wikipedia. In these cases, the list of references in a Wikipedia article, may still come in handy, by leading you to journal articles and other relevant sources.  

Use of LCSH as a Thesaurus

LCSH, as a thesaurus, has a practical bent, and is based on actual usage rather than on exact technical definitions, differences in definitions, "accepted" terms vs. variant terms, etc., which might exist, but perhaps not have entered into common use. For examples of this, see the following records:

 1. Medical records—Data processing sh85083013

 2. Interstitial cystitis sh90000763

From the work cataloged for this record: "Because IC varies so much in symptoms and severity, most researchers believe it is not one, but several diseases. In recent years, scientists have started to use the terms bladder pain syndrome (BPS) or painful bladder syndrome (PBS) to describe cases with painful urinary symptoms that may not meet the strictest definition of IC. The term IC/PBS includes all cases of urinary pain that can't be attributed to other causes, such as infection or urinary stones. The term interstitial cystitis, or IC, is used alone when describing cases that meet all of the IC criteria established by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)."

The decision was made to ignore the indications in the paragraph above, that "painful bladder syndrome" is different than "Interstitial cystitis," albeit closely related. Instead, "painful bladder syndrome" was added as a UF reference for "interstitial cystitis," in agreement with other sources.

3. Gaura neomexicana   sh2013001721

670 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS), June 5, 2013: $b (Oenothera coloradensis ssp. neomexicana, synonyms: Gaura neomexicana, New Mexico beeblossom)

In the source cited above, Oenothera coloradensis ssp. neomexicana is identified as the "accepted name," while "Gaura neomexicana" is identified as a "synonym (not accepted)." However, the decision was made to take the "accepted name" with a grain of salt, since it seems less common than the name found in the other sources. Therefore, this "accepted name" was entered as a variant (UF).   

References  

Class Web or Minaret

SACO Resources

SHM Subject Headings Manual

These selected sections comprise basic training, to be completed by catalogers before making their first subject heading proposal.

  • Under "Making Subject Heading Proposals"
    • H 187
    • H 200: numbers 3-21
    • H 202
    • H 203
  • Under "Formulating Subject Headings"
    • H 285
    • H 290
    • H 306
    • Just note the titles of the other instruction sheets in this section, from H 310—H 364
  • Under "References"
    • H 370
    • H 371
    • H 373
    • H 374    
    • H 375
    • H 400 (Scope Notes)
  • SHM H 405 Name vs. Subject Authority File
  • In SHM, open up the following sections, and simply note the titles of the instruction sheets within:
    • Geographic Headings and Subdivisions
    • Subdivisions Controlled by Pattern Headings
    • Special Topics, Materials, Subdivisions, etc.  

Print Resources

  • Webster's Third New International Dictionary (Web. 3)
  • National Register of Historic Places
  • Various discipline specific dictionaries, thesauri, etc.  

Resources for Geographic Proposals

Geographic Print Resources

  • National Register of Historic Places
  • Columbia Gazetteer of the World, 1998
  • Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary, 3rd edition
  • Rand McNally ... commercial atlas & marketing guide
  • Rand McNally's The New International Atlas
  • The Times Atlas of the World  

Examples of GPO Subject Proposals

  • White-nose syndrome sh2009010759
  • Wallow Fire, 2011 sh2012002192
  • Robotic exoskeletons sh2010011967
  • Battery charging stations (Electric vehicles) sh2012003590
  • Chemicals
    • Butoxyethanol acetate sh2009009283
    • Aluminum oxynitride spinel sh2011002508
  • Drugs
    • Dextromethorphan sh2007010731
    • Rosiglitazone sh2009002732
  • Buildings
    • William T. Trant Post Office Building (Westfield, Mass.)  sh2012002551
  • Geographics
    • Namonuito Islands (Micronesia) sh2012000694
    • Carroll Creek (Ala.) sh2012000461
    • Driftless Area National Wildlife Refuge sh2012001808  
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GPO Cataloging Guidelines

Introduction
Bibliographic Cataloging
Overview
Authoritative Status of the Catalog of U.S. Government Publications
GPO Records in OCLC and Record Maintenance
Sources
What LSCM Catalogs
Treatment Decisions for Collections and Analytics
Factors to Consider for the Treatment Decision
Separate Record Policy
Background
Procedures
Exceptions
Original Cataloging
Copy Cataloging
Adapting PCC Pre-RDA Records
Adapting Non-PCC Pre-RDA Records
Authenticating Non-PCC Pre-RDA Records as PCC
Replacing and Exporting Records
Cataloging Non-distributed Formats (for C&I)
Authority Records
General MARC Field Policy 490 – Series Statement Field
General MARC Field Policy 856 – Historic URLs
074 GPO Item Number
Multiparts
Item Number Corrections
086 SuDoc Number
Sources to Consult
Background and General Instructions
Multiparts
Serials and Integrating Resources
Microfiche
Current RDA Policies and MARC Fields (February 2015- )
MARC Fields
Overview of Previous Microfiche Policies
Re-Cataloging Microfiche
Congressional Publications
Fixed Fields
Leader/17- Encoding Level
Leader/18 - Descriptive Cataloging Form
008/39 - Cataloging Source
Variable Fields
037 - GPO Sales Stock Number
042 - Authentication Code
050 - LC Call Number
086 - SuDoc Classification Number
088 - Report Number
1xx - Principal Creator
130/240 - Unique Title for Work
245 - Title Statement
250 - Edition Statement
264 - Publication Statement
264 - Distribution Statement
300 - Physical Description
500 - General Notes
504 - Bibliography, etc. Note
505 - Contents Note
Technical Reports
Identification of Technical Reports
Monograph or Serial
Sources of Information
Cataloging Instructions
Fixed Fields
Variable Fields
General Guidance on Special Technical Report Fields
027 – Standard Technical Report Number
513 – Type of Report and Period Covered Note
536 – Funding Information Note
Public and Private Laws
Public Laws
Private Laws
Instructions
Treaties
074 - Item Number
086 - SuDoc Number
490 and 830 - Series
546 and 041- Language
Senate Treaty Document Series (Y 1.1/4:)
Cartographic Materials
Background and Sources Consulted
BLM Surface/Mineral Management Maps
Encoding Level
1XX- Principal Creator
255 - Cartographic Math Data
300 - Physical Description
655 - Genre Term
Audiovisual Resources
Scope of the Format Visual Resources
Definitions of Types of Visual Resources
Bibliographic Treatment in the CGP
Analytics of Videos
Collections of Videos
Analytics of Still Images
Collections of Still Images
MARC Fields for Visual Resources
245
300 - Physical Description
655 - Genre/Form Terms
Continuing Resources
Selective Registration for ISSN Assignments
GPO’s automated submission of continuing resources for ISSN assignments
GPO’s selective registration of continuing resources for ISSN assignments
Inclusion criteria
Exclusion criteria
Serials
Sources to Consult
Policies, Procedures, Practices
Definition of Serial
Monograph vs. Serial and Frequency of Issuance
When Mode of Issuance Is Ambiguous
Replacement of Monograph Records with a Serial Record
Ceased Serials Cataloged for the First Time GPO
Numbering–Exceptions to RDA Principle of Transcription
Notification of Cataloging Updates via WebTech Notes
Notification of OAM for Serials Harvesting
Updating Collections of Serials
MARC Fields
Leader /17 (Encoding Lvl) & 042
010 - LC Control Number
022 - ISSN
050 – LC Call Number
060 – NLM Call Number
070 – NAL Call Number
074 - Item Number
082 - Dewey Decimal Classification Number
086 - SuDoc Number
246- Varying Form of Title
264 - Production, Publication
300 - Physical Description (300|a )
362, 588, and Any Field Where Designation Is Represented
500 - Distribution Note
515 - Numbering Peculiarities
538 - System Details Note
588 - DBO/Source of Title Proper Note
Verbiage for “Description Based on” Note
Print Version Record Used As Basis of Description for Online Version
76X--78X– Linking Entry Fields
776 – Additional Physical Form
Cessation of print version, continuation online version
Cessation of serial due to format and title change
Microform serials and GPO practices for linkages
Former, discontinued practice for linking microform serials to other manifestations
Current practice for linking microform serials to other manifestations
Other Considerations for Linking Entry Fields
Parallel formats
Works linked but not described in bibliographic records
856 – Electronic Location & Access
Single- vs. Separate-Record Approach and PURLs
Appendix A: Bibliographic File Maintenance: Deletion of Records from the CONSER Database
Appendix B: Where to Find Certain CONSER Procedures
Integrating Resources
086 - SuDoc Number
130 - Authorized Access Point for Work
245 - Title
Other Title Information ($b)
Statement of Responsibility ($c)
300 - Physical Description
5XX - Notes
Order of 5xx Notes
588 - DBO/Source of title proper note
580/760-787 - Linking Relationships
Computer Files
Procedures to Convert Type "M" to Type "A" Records
Name Authorities
Background
Instructions to Consult
Policy Overview
Personal Names
Congressional Publications
Other Publications
Corporate/Conference Names
Variant Names
Conference Authority Records
Programs and Projects
Corporate Names for Parks, Forests, Preserves, etc.
Works and Expressions
Multipart (Collective) Titles
Series
Series-Like Phrases
Places (Jurisdictional Geographic Names)
General Procedures
Optional Fields
Research in OCLC
How Much Research Should Be Performed . . . ?
When to Consult Additional Sources
Tips for Contacting Agencies
General Field Specific Guidelines
043 - See from Tracing
1xx and 4xx
4XX - See from Tracing
5XX - See Also from Tracing
670 - Source Data Found
678 - Biographical or Historical Data
781 - Subdivision Linking Entry - Geographic Subdivision
RDA
General Policies
Hybrid Records in RDA Name Authority Records
When to Recode an Existing NAR to RDA
How to Recode an Existing NAR from AACR2 to RDA
Field Specific Guidelines
$u and $v in the 046 and 3XX Optional Fields
Source of Information: 670 vs. $v in the 046 and 3XX Optional Fields
046 – Special Coded Dates
$2 – Source of Term
$s (start date or period) $t (end date or period)
336 - Content Type
368 - Other Attributes of Person or Corporate Body
370 - Associated Place
371 – Address
372 – Field of Activity
373 – Association Group
377 – Associated Language
4XX – See from Tracing
5XX – See Also from Tracings
670 – Source Data Found
678 – Biographical or Historical Data
Personal Names
Procedure for ECIP
General Instructions
046 – Special Coded Dates (RDA 9.3)
$s and $t in the 046 and 3XX Optional Fields
100 – Authorized Access Point
$q – Fuller Form of Name
$d – Birth and/or Death Date
$c – Titles and Other Words (Professions) Associated with a Name
368 - Other Attributes of Person or Corporate Body
370 - Associated Place (RDA 9.8-9.11)
371 - Address (RDA 9.12)
372 – Field of Activity (RDA 9.15)
373 – Associated Group (RDA 9.13: Affiliation)
374 – Profession or Occupation (RDA 9.16)
375 - Gender (RDA 9.7)
377 - Language (RDA 9.14)
378 – Fuller Form of Name (RDA 9.5)
400 - See from Tracing-Personal Name
510 - Related Corporate Body
678 - Biographical or Historical Data (RDA 9.17)
Corporate Names
Notes
Sources to Consult
Before You Begin
MARC Fields
110 - Corporate Name
Places Associated with the Corporate Body
Associated Institution
Names Containing the Word "Services"
111- Meeting Names
368 - Other Attributes of Corporate Body, $a Type of Corporate Body
370 - Associated Place
372 - Field of Activity
373 - Associated Group (11.5)
410/411 - See from Tracing
Initialism or Acronyms in Capital Letters
Variants for Names Containing Ampersands
410 - See from Tracing - Corporate Name
Variant Names Entered Subordinately
Place Names As Jurisdictions vs. Locations
Variant Names Entered Directly
Variants for Names Containing the Term “Inc.” or “Incorporated”
411 - See from Tracing - Meeting Name
Additional Identifying Element(s) for Initialisms/Acronyms in Variants for Meeting Names
510/511 – See Also from Tracing
Relationships and Relationship Designators
Mergers
510 - See Also from Tracing - Corporate Name
Hierarchical Superior Relationship
667 - Nonpublic Gen Note
678 - Biographical or Historical Data (11.11)
Works and Expressions
046 – Special Coded Dates (RDA 6.4 and 6.10)
130 – Authorized Access Point
336 – Content Type (RDA 6.9)
370 – Associated Place (RDA 6.5)
377 – Associated Language (RDA 6.11)
380 – Form of Work (RDA 6.3)
410/430 – Variant Authorized Access Points
667 – Nonpublic General Note
670 – Source Data Found
EXEMPLARS
Places
043 - Geographic Area Code
451 - See From Tracing
670 - Source Data Found
781 - Subdivision Linking Entry-Geographic Subdivision
AACR2
General Policies
Hybrid Records in RDA NARs
When to Recode an Existing NAR to RDA
How to Recode an Existing NAR from AACR2 to RDA
Field Specific Guidelines
5XX - See Also from Tracings
Personal Names
100 – Authorized Access Point
$q - Fuller Form of Name
400 – See from Tracing-Personal Name
678 – Biographical or Historical Data (RDA 9.17)
Corporate Bodies
Auth Status - 008/33
110 - Corporate Name
111 – Meeting Name
410/411 – Variant Name
5XX – See Also from Tracings
670 - Source Data Found
Places
043 - Geographic Area Code
451 - See from Tracing
670 – Source Data Found
781 - Subdivision Linking Entry-Geographic Subdivision
Subject Cataloging
General Policies
LC Subject Headings
NASA Thesaurus Terms As Subject Headings
MESH, NAL, and Other Non-LC Subject Headings
LC Genre/Form Terms for Library and Archival Materials
Adding General LCGFT to Bibliographic Records
Background Resources for LCGFT
Adding LCGFT to Cartographic Records
Adding LCGFT to Audiovisual Records
Subject Heading Proposals, Background, and Tips
Tips and Instructions
Internet Research
Subject Headings Manual
Searching Minaret
Add'l Minaret (Class Web) Tips
Scope Notes
Use of the Dictionary
Use of Wikipedia
Use of LSCH As a Thesaurus
References
Class Web or Minaret
SACO Resources
Subject Headings Manual
Print Resources
Resources for Geographic Proposals
Geographic Print Resources
Examples of GPO Subject Proposals
Subject Heading Proposals, Workflow
Submitting SACO Proposals for Internal Review
Producing Associated Bib Records; Exporting Subject Authority Records
Submitting SACO Proposals to the Library of Congress
Updating Aleph Authority File
Name vs Subject Authority File
Overview
Instructions
Name Headings As Subjects
Special Topics, Materials, Subdivisions, Etc.
Environmental Impact Statements
Legal Topics
Research
Other Metadata Schemes
Dublin Core
ONIX
Glossary
Initialisms and Acronyms
List of Major Changes to the Cataloging Guidelines

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Please Note: The online guidelines are updated frequently. Superseded text is replaced by new text or deleted. The PDF version is published semiannually.

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Questions on the GPO-specific practices outlined in the guidelines should be submitted via askGPO. Please indicate "Cataloging: Policies & Practices" in the subject area.