Glossary

A

Adapt: To use an existing record to catalog. GPO usage: this usually entails editing the record. See copy cataloging.

Authenticate: To create a new record, or modify an existing record, so that it meets PCC standards, as indicated by the addition of the code “pcc” to the 042 field. PCC standards are met by conforming to the PCC RDA BIBCO Standard Record (BSR) Metadata Application Profile or the CONSER Standard Record (CSR). When authenticating a record, in addition to coding the 042 field “pcc,” GPO also codes the Fixed Field: ELvl: Encoding Level (Leader/17) “blank,” and the Fixed Field: Srce: Cataloging Source (009/9) “c,” unless it is already coded blank. General usage: “… it is permissible to authenticate the new record as PCC without converting it to RDA.” (From: Final date for BIBCO and CONSER bibliographic contributions formulated according to AACR2: December 31, 2014)

B

BIBCO standard record: The "model" for bibliographic monographic records using a single encoding level in a shared database environment

Bibliographic data sheet: See Report documentation page.

C

Clone: See derive

Convert: (Frequently used together and often interchangeably with, recode or re-describe.) To change the descriptive cataloging standard, conventions, or form of a catalog record, from a former one to a current one, as indicated by a change of coding in the Fixed Field: Desc: Descriptive Cataloging Form (Leader/18), and sometimes a change in the 040 ǂe. For example, a record is converted from AACR2 to RDA by re-describing according to RDA, and by adding “ǂe rda” to the 040 field, and changing the Leader/18 from “a” to “i.” General usage: “… it is permissible to authenticate the new record as PCC without converting it to RDA.” (From: Final date for BIBCO and CONSER bibliographic contributions formulated according to AACR2: December 31, 2014)

Copy cataloging: Utilization of an existing record to catalog, as opposed to original cataloging. See adapt.

Crosswalk: A table or chart showing equivalent elements/fields in more than one metadata schema.

D

Database maintenance: Modification of existing records, that usually, but not always, exist in the CGP. Records are usually modified in both the CGP and OCLC, but may be modified only in the CGP. Occasionally, records that are not in the CGP may only be modified in OCLC, for example, to add links to GPO records. Examples of database maintenance: to add a newly created name or series access point, to change a misapplied authorized access point, to remove duplicate records, or to change the SuDoc classes.

Derive: Using an existing record to create a new record to add to a catalog, such as OCLC or Aleph. (Referred to as “clone/cloning” in the 2002 GPO Cataloging Guidelines and in LC-PCC PS 1.11.) General usage: “If deriving a new record from a PCC non-RDA record in order to describe a reproduction of that resource in a different format …” (From: Final date for BIBCO and CONSER bibliographic contributions formulated according to AACR2: December 31, 2014)

Division of the World: A term used to reflect that certain entities must be established in the NACO Authority File (LC/NAF) and others in the Subject Authority File (LCSH) by the rules appropriate for each.

Documentation page: See Report documentation page.

E

Edit: See the common dictionary definition. GPO usage: to add, delete, or modify data in an existing record. Interchangeable with: enhance (see below), modify, and update.

Enhance: See the common dictionary definition. GPO usage: to add or modify data in an existing record. Interchangeable with: edit (see above), modify, and update. Also refers to an OCLC Cataloging Authorization Level, as in Regular Enhance and Enhance National (see: OCLC Cataloging Authorization Levels …)

Expression: The intellectual or artistic realization of a work in the form of alpha-numeric, musical, or choreographic notation, sound, image, object, movement, etc., or any combination of such forms; it can refer to individual entities, aggregates, or components of these entities.

G

GEOnet Names Server: The official repository of standard spellings of all foreign geographic names, sanctioned by the United States Board on Geographic Names (US BGN).

I

Item: A single exemplar or instance of a manifestation; it can refer to individual entities, aggregates, or components of these entities.

Integrating resource: A resource that is added to or changed by means of updates that do not remain discrete but are integrated into the whole (e.g., a loose-leaf manual that is updated by means of replacement pages, a Web site that is updated continuously)

L

LC record: A bibliographic record in LC’s catalog, as evidenced from LC’s symbol, DLC, in the 040 field.

Library of Congress Authority File: Includes name and subject authority records. It comprises the LC Name Authority File (NACO) and the LC Subject Authority File (SACO). The NACO file is updated in real time, while additions to the SACO file must receive Library of Congress approval, which may take three to four months.

Library of Congress record: See LC record, above.

M

Manifestation: The physical embodiment of an expression of a work; it can refer to individual entities, aggregates, or components of these entities.

MARC 21 tag: An element of the MARC21 data schema, such as 245 for title or 710 for corporate body.

Metadata schema: A system of data elements used to describe a resource.

Modify: See the common dictionary definition. GPO usage: to add, delete, or modify data in an existing record. Interchangeable with: edit, enhance, and update.

Multipart: A monograph complete, or intended to be complete, in a finite number of separate parts.

N

NASA Center for AeroSpace Information (CASI) Aeronautics and Space Database: Maintains the NASA database of over 4 million bibliographic records.

NASA Thesaurus: Contains the authorized NASA subject terms.)

O

Original cataloging: Creation of a new catalog record, as opposed to copy cataloging.

P

Preferred title for the work: A title or form of title chosen to identify the work. The preferred title is also the basis for the authorized access point representing that work. (RDA Glossary).

Principal creator: The person, family, or corporate body that is a creator according to RDA 19.2, and is represented by an authorized access point that precedes the preferred title for a work in the authorized access point for that work. In MARC, the authorized access point for the principal creator occurs in the 100, 110, or 111 field of a bibliographic or authority record. Previously referred to as: main entry. Previous (and sometimes current) usage: a work, expression, resource, or record is entered under the person, family, or corporate body.

R

Recode (Re-code): (Frequently used together and often interchangeably with, re-describe (see below) or convert.) To change the descriptive cataloging standard, conventions, or form of a catalog record, from a former one to a current one, specifically by changing the coding in the Fixed Field: Desc: Descriptive Cataloging Form (Leader/18), and sometimes changing the coding in the 040 ǂe. For example, a record is recoded from AACR2 to RDA by adding “ǂe rda” to the 040 field, and changing the Leader/18 from “a” to “i.”

Re-describe: (Frequently used together and often interchangeably with, recode (see above) or convert.) To change the descriptive cataloging standard, conventions, or form of a catalog record, from a former one to a current one, as indicated by a change of coding in the Fixed Field: Desc: Descriptive Cataloging Form (Leader/18), and sometimes a change in the 040 ǂe. For example, a record is re-described from AACR2 to RDA by re-cataloging according to RDA instructions.  

Report documentation page: A page in a report containing a form that comprises descriptive information about the report, such as: abstract, authors, dates, numbers of various types, performing organizations, sponsoring organizations, and subject terms.

S

Schema: See Metadata schema

Serial: A mode of issuance of a manifestation issued in successive parts, usually bearing numbering, that has no predetermined conclusion. A serial includes a periodical, monographic series, newspaper, etc. Reproductions of serials and resources that exhibit characteristics of serials, such as successive issues, numbering, and frequency, but whose duration is limited, such as newsletters of events, are also included. (RDA)

Still Image: Content expressed through line, shape, shading, etc., intended to be perceived visually in two dimensions. Includes drawings, paintings, diagrams, photographic images (stills), etc.

T

Technical report documentation page: See Report documentation page.

Title proper: A chief name of a manifestation, that is, a title normally used when naming the manifestation. An alternative title is treated as part of the title proper. (RDA Glossary)

U

Update: See the common dictionary definition. GPO usage: to add, delete, or modify data in an existing record. Interchangeable with: edit, enhance, and modify.

Upgrade: Commonly used for two separate processes:

  1. To change the descriptive cataloging standard, conventions, or form of a catalog record, from a former one to a current one, as indicated by a change of coding in the Fixed Field: Desc: Descriptive Cataloging Form (Leader/18), and sometimes a change in the 040 ǂe. For example, a record is upgraded from AACR2 to RDA.
  2. To increase the Encoding Level of a catalog record, as indicated by a change of coding in the Fixed Field: ELvl: Encoding Level (Leader/17). For example, a record is upgraded from Full-level I to Full-level blank. Also used for authenticate (see below).

Due to these two separate meanings, GPO prefers to use:

  1. Recode and re-describe, for changing the descriptive cataloging standard, conventions, or form of a catalog record, from a former one to a current one, as indicated by a change of coding in the Fixed Field: Desc: Descriptive Cataloging Form (Leader/18), and sometimes a change in the 040 ǂe.
  2. Authenticate, for creating a new record, or modifying an existing record, so that it meets PCC standards, as indicated by the addition of the code “pcc” to the 042 field.

GPO uses “upgrade” to mean: to increase the Encoding level to I level, which is not authenticating the record.

V

Video: Media used to store moving or still images, designed for use with a playback device such as a videocassette player or DVD player. Includes media used to store digitally encoded as well as analog images.

W

Work: A distinct intellectual or artistic creation (i.e., the intellectual or artistic content); it can refer to individual entities, aggregates, or components of these entities.