Bibliographic Cataloging: Microfiche

In the past, GPO cataloged a variety of microfiche, including original microfiche (such as computer output microfiche, or COM), and microfiche issued by other agencies, such as ERIC, GAO, and NASA. As of December 2015, most of the microfiche cataloged by GPO are GPO produced reproduction microfiche. GPO currently distributes Congressionals, the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), and the Bound Congressional Record in fiche. Some depository libraries may receive the Federal register in microfiche directly from the Office of the Federal Register.

Microfiche have been cataloged different ways over the years; do not go back and re-describe existing microfiche records according to a different standard—leave them according to how they were treated at the time they were cataloged. Through approximately March of 2013, microfiche reproductions were cataloged according to Library of Congress Rule Interpretation (LCRI) 11, which based the description on the original manifestation (or work, as the LCRI put it). Although this practice was often referred to as AACR2 practice, it was actually based on a Library of Congress Rule Interpretation. Beginning in April 2013, microfiche reproductions began to be cataloged according to RDA, which based the description on the reproduction. In February 2015, LC-PCC PS 1.11, essentially re-instated the practice of LCRI 11, thereby reverting the practice to basing the description on the original print resource. This continues to be the current practice.

Current RDA Policies and MARC Fields (February 2015- )

As of February 2015, GPO follows LC-PCC PS 1.11. As under AACR2/LCRI, microfiche are treated as reproductions of the original print publications. Accordingly, the physical description field (300) reflects the print item. A reproduction note field (533) is added with information about the physical qualities of the microfiche, as it is considered a reproduction or copy of the original print version. In addition, current practice is to create a separate record for the microfiche format, with linking fields (776) to other available formats, such as print and online. Separate microfiche records were also created for much of the past, except as noted at the end of this article.

Alterations to the Paper Publication

Microfiche are created or manufactured by photographing individual publications. The original paper versions are first cut apart and then photographed using special cameras. Alterations to the original paper are often made after the microfiche is generated, which can lead to duplicate or incorrect records.

To minimize the impact of alterations, GPO does the following:

  • Cloning of records: If there is a reliable record in the OCLC database, GPO clones the record for the original to create a record for the microfiche version.
  • Use of original document: If the original paper document is available to the GPO cataloger, it may be used as a source of information for descriptive cataloging and all notes fields.

Information that is hand written or stamped on the original document is ignored or only recorded in the reproduction note field

  • Handwritten or stamped numbering added to the original pages by those preparing paper documents for microfilming, is disregarded in favor of the original page numbering.
  • If the pagination of the original paper document has been rendered illegible by the microfiche manufacturer, GPO normally records the pagination in the 300 field as: 1 volume. However, if a record for the print or EL version is available, take the pagination from that.
  • Handwritten or stamped on series statements are recorded in the series area of the reproduction note (533 subfield “f”).
  • Information in the eye-readable header and frames added by the publisher of the microfiche is recorded in reproduction notes (533 field), if needed. Additional notes are sometimes added to the body of the record. For example, a header title should be recorded in the 533 subfield “n” and additionally traced in a 246 field.

MARC Fields

Fixed field

‘b’(Form of Item)

007- Physical Description Fixed Field 

Most microfiche cataloged by GPO use the following codes:

007 _ _ h $b e $d b $e m $f b--- $g b $h b $i c $j a

These codes represent the following values for Microform:

$a h Microform

$b e Microfiche [Specific material designation]

$d b Negative

$e m 4 x 6 (11 x 15 cm.) [Dimensions]

ǂf b024 Normal (16-30x), or sometimes: $f b--- [RDA -Reduction ratio]

$g b Black-and-white [Color]

$h b Diazo [Emulsion on film] -[RDA 3.7.2 recording emulsion types]

$i c Service copy [Generation]

$j a Safety base, undetermined [Base of film]

074- Item Number 

For distributed microfiche, the item number is recorded followed by MF in parentheses. See Bibliographic Cataloging: 074 GPO Item Number for more information.

300- Physical Description

Describes the original manifestation

336- Content Type

336 _ _ text $b txt $2 rdacontent

337- Media Type

337 _ _ microform $b h $2 rdamedia

338- Carrier Type

338 _ _ microfiche $b he $2 rdacarrier

500- General Notes

500 _ _ Paper version available for sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office. [Used in microfiche record if offered in the GPO Sales program - be sure to use Government Publishing Office after Dec. 16, 2014].

500 _ _ Shipping list no.: 2009-0442-M. [add if known]

776- Additional Physical Form Entry

See: Bibliographic Cataloging: General MARC Field Policies, section titled “76X to 78X- Format of Entries in Linking Entry Fields.”

Overview of Previous Microfiche Policies

Early RDA (April 2013-February 2015) 

Since GPO cataloged many microfiche documents under RDA before LC-PCC PS 1.11 was published, the following information is provided for interpreting these records. For current practices, please see the Current RDA Policies and MARC Fields (February 2015- ) section above.

GPO implemented the change to RDA cataloging in April 2013. Under RDA 1.11,” When describing a … reproduction, record the data relating to the … reproduction in the appropriate element.” The physical description field described the characteristics of the microfiche itself, as there was no reproduction note.

The major changes from AACR2 were: (a) the 300 field described the physical details of the microfiche itself, and, (b) the addition of fields 336 (content), 337 (media) and 338 (carrier) to describe the nature of the microfiche. Early RDA example:

300 2 microfiches (v, 184 pages) : ǂb negative, illustrations ; ǂc 11 x 15 cm

336 text $b txt $2 rdacontent

337 microform $b h $2 rdamedia

338 microfiche $b he $2 rdacarrier

Under AACR2/LCRI, microfiche records were essentially the same as print records with a 533 field added to describe the qualities of the microfiche format. AACR2/LCRI example:

300 v, 184 p. ǂb ill.

533 Microfiche. $b [Washington, D.C. : $c National Aeronautics and Space Administration], $d 1986. $e 2 microfiches.

AACR2/LCRI (through March 2013) 

Since GPO cataloged thousands of microfiche documents under AACR2/LCRI, the following information is provided for interpreting these records. For current practices, please see the Current RDA Policies and MARC Fields (February 2015- ) section above.

GPO previously cataloged original microfiche as well as reproduction microfiche. These are defined as follows:

Original microfiche: includes computer output microfiche (COM), and microfiche incorporating collections of two or more other documents that were issued originally in paper.
Microfiche reproductions (or reproduction microfiche): are manufactured by photographing individual paper documents.

When original microfiche were cataloged, the internal sources and the eye-readable header were used as sources of information for the cataloging record, according to AACR2 chapter 11.

Microfiche reproductions were cataloged according to LCRI chapter 11. Descriptive information on the original print document was recorded in the title and statement of responsibility area, edition area, publication, distribution, etc. area, physical description area, series area, and notes area of records. Only the microfiche frames of the original paper document were used to obtain information on the descriptive and physical characteristics described in the fixed fields, bibliographic description, physical description, and notes other than the reproduction note. Information about the publishing of microfiche reproductions, i.e., the place of publication, publisher, distributor, date of publication; number of microfiche; size of the microfiche, if required; series titles and series numbering added by the publisher of the microfiche; and notes pertaining only to microfiche reproductions were recorded in reproduction notes (533 field). The only allowable sources of information for the reproduction note were the eye-readable headers, frames added by the producer of microfiche, and accompanying materials.

Prior to adopting a separate records policy, GPO treated dual distribution of microfiche titles as follows.

  • Publications distributed to some depository libraries in print and to others in microfiche were represented by a single record describing the print version and providing distribution information for both versions.
  • If the microfiche version of a publication was processed after the online version had been cataloged, information about the distribution of the microfiche version was noted in the record for the online version.
  • Sometimes microfiche were created inadvertently or purposely for documents that were supposed to be distributed in paper or as an electronic resource. Distribution notes and item numbers for the microfiche were added to existing records for the paper or electronic resource in OCLC, but were not produced for the Monthly Catalog.

From the early 1990’s to 1998, paper publications were sent to contractors to create microfiche for distribution to the depository libraries. Cataloging staff did not receive the microfiches. Instead they received the cut up paper documents from the contractors. Since the microfiche was not in hand, they had to create records from these paper ‘cut-ups’ for the microfiche. Accordingly, they created print records but added the microfiche information, such as item numbers and distribution notes, to these records.


074 83-B (microfiche)

500 Distributed to depository libraries in microfiche.

In the CGP, this record has the following additional note:

590 [Item 83-B (microfiche); sw/jk/eds/eb]

Current Procedures for Re-Cataloging Microfiche That Were Previously Described in a Record Utilizing the Single Record Approach

The separate record approach is now applied to records described in the situations above. Consult and follow the Procedures under the topic: Separate Record Policy, in: Bibliographic Cataloging: Overview. In all cases, when a record is needed for the microfiche, essentially “split” a record that uses the single record approach into separate records for each format. The result will be two or more records, each describing one format only. Specifically, when re-cataloging such microfiche:

1. Create a microfiche version record in OCLC for the publication:

a. If there is a record in OCLC, adapt the OCLC MF record and export it to the CGP.

b. If there is no record in OCLC, and the MF is in hand, create a new record at the PCC level. Clone the record for the original print manifestation, should one exist. Follow LC-PCC PS 1.11. If cloning, follow the section: “Cloning from existing records for the original print resource” in LC-PCC PS 1.11.

c. If there is no record in OCLC, and the MF is not in hand, but it is certain that the item was distributed in MF (using ACSIS, note or item number on card or in print record (see example above), etc.), then create a new record. Clone the record for the original print manifestation, should one exist. Follow LC-PCC PS 1.11. If cloning, follow the section: “Cloning from existing records for the original print resource” in LC-PCC PS 1.11.

2. For print version records created during the ‘cut-up” period (from the early 1990’s to mid-1998), do the following:

a. Delete holdings in OCLC

b. For the record in both OCLC and the CGP:

i. delete the 074 field for the microfiche -- (MF) or (microfiche)

ii. Add the following 500 note: Print format not distributed to depository libraries [or Format not distributed to depository libraries]. Distributed to depository libraries in microfiche.

iii. add a 776 field for the MF version

3. Catalog the electronic version if available.

A variation of the above combined print/microfiche format records, are combined microfiche/online format records. Occasionally, microfiche records will be found in OCLC that did not make it into the CGP. Many of these are microfiche records that include data for the online format. Create and export two records to the CGP – one for the microfiche version and one for the online version. See the example in the Procedures under the topic: Separate Record Policy, in: Bibliographic Cataloging: Overview.


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GPO Cataloging Guidelines

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GPO Cataloging Guidelines: Organization and Structure
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GPO Records in OCLC and Record Maintenance
What LSCM Catalogs
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Factors to Consider for the Treatment Decision
Separate Record Policy
Original Cataloging
Copy Cataloging
Adapting PCC Pre-RDA Records
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Authenticating Non-PCC Pre-RDA Records as PCC
Replacing and Exporting Records
Cataloging Non-distributed Formats (for C&I)
Authority Records
General MARC Field Policy 490 – Series Statement Field
General MARC Field Policy 856 – Historic URLs
074 GPO Item Number
Item Number Corrections
086 SuDoc Number
Sources to Consult
Background and General Instructions
Serials and Integrating Resources
Current RDA Policies and MARC Fields (February 2015- )
MARC Fields
Overview of Previous Microfiche Policies
Re-Cataloging Microfiche
Congressional Publications
Fixed Fields
Leader/17- Encoding Level
Leader/18 - Descriptive Cataloging Form
008/39 - Cataloging Source
Variable Fields
037 - GPO Sales Stock Number
042 - Authentication Code
050 - LC Call Number
086 - SuDoc Classification Number
088 - Report Number
1xx - Principal Creator
130/240 - Unique Title for Work
245 - Title Statement
250 - Edition Statement
264 - Publication Statement
264 - Distribution Statement
300 - Physical Description
500 - General Notes
504 - Bibliography, etc. Note
505 - Contents Note
Technical Reports
Identification of Technical Reports
Monograph or Serial
Sources of Information
Cataloging Instructions
Fixed Fields
Variable Fields
General Guidance on Special Technical Report Fields
027 – Standard Technical Report Number
513 – Type of Report and Period Covered Note
536 – Funding Information Note
Public and Private Laws
Public Laws
Private Laws
074 - Item Number
086 - SuDoc Number
490 and 830 - Series
546 and 041- Language
Senate Treaty Document Series (Y 1.1/4:)
Cartographic Materials
Background and Sources Consulted
Brochures and Visitor Guides Treated as Maps
BLM Surface/Mineral Management Maps
Serial Treatment
Encoding Level
086 - SuDoc Number
1XX - Principal Creator
130/240 - Unique Title for Work
245 - Title Statement
255 - Cartographic Math Data
300 - Physical Description
500 - Notes
655 - Genre Term
Audiovisual Resources
Scope of the Format Visual Resources
Definitions of Types of Visual Resources
Bibliographic Treatment in the CGP
Analytics of Videos
Collections of Videos
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Collections of Still Images
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300 - Physical Description
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Continuing Resources
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When Mode of Issuance Is Ambiguous
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Notification of Cataloging Updates via WebTech Notes
Notification of OAM for Serials Harvesting
Updating Collections of Serials
MARC Fields
Leader /17 (Encoding Lvl) & 042
010 - LC Control Number
022 - ISSN
050 – LC Call Number
060 – NLM Call Number
070 – NAL Call Number
074 - Item Number
082 - Dewey Decimal Classification Number
086 - SuDoc Number
246- Varying Form of Title
264 - Production, Publication
300 - Physical Description (300|a )
362, 588, and Any Field Where Designation Is Represented
500 - Distribution Note
515 - Numbering Peculiarities
538 - System Details Note
588 - DBO/Source of Title Proper Note
Verbiage for “Description Based on” Note
Print Version Record Used As Basis of Description for Online Version
76X--78X– Linking Entry Fields
776 – Additional Physical Form
Cessation of print version, continuation online version
Cessation of serial due to format and title change
Microform serials and GPO practices for linkages
Former, discontinued practice for linking microform serials to other manifestations
Current practice for linking microform serials to other manifestations
Other Considerations for Linking Entry Fields
Parallel formats
Works linked but not described in bibliographic records
856 – Electronic Location & Access
Single- vs. Separate-Record Approach and PURLs
Appendix A: Bibliographic File Maintenance: Deletion of Records from the CONSER Database
Appendix B: Where to Find Certain CONSER Procedures
Integrating Resources
086 - SuDoc Number
130 - Authorized Access Point for Work
245 - Title
Other Title Information ($b)
Statement of Responsibility ($c)
300 - Physical Description
5XX - Notes
Order of 5xx Notes
588 - DBO/Source of title proper note
580/760-787 - Linking Relationships
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Places (Jurisdictional Geographic Names)
General Procedures
Optional Fields
Research in OCLC
How Much Research Should Be Performed . . . ?
When to Consult Additional Sources
Tips for Contacting Agencies
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043 - Geographic Area Code
1xx and 4xx
4XX - See from Tracing
5XX - See Also from Tracing
670 - Source Data Found
678 - Biographical or Historical Data
781 - Subdivision Linking Entry - Geographic Subdivision
General Policies
Hybrid Records in RDA Name Authority Records
When to Recode an Existing NAR to RDA
How to Recode an Existing NAR from AACR2 to RDA
Field Specific Guidelines
$u and $v in the 046 and 3XX Optional Fields
Source of Information: 670 vs. $v in the 046 and 3XX Optional Fields
046 – Special Coded Dates
$2 – Source of Term
$s (start date or period) $t (end date or period)
336 - Content Type
368 - Other Attributes of Person or Corporate Body
370 - Associated Place
371 – Address
372 – Field of Activity
373 – Association Group
377 – Associated Language
4XX – See from Tracing
5XX – See Also from Tracings
670 – Source Data Found
678 – Biographical or Historical Data
Personal Names
Procedure for ECIP
Procedure for CRS Reports
General Instructions
046 – Special Coded Dates (RDA 9.3)
$s and $t in the 046 and 3XX Optional Fields
100 – Authorized Access Point
$q – Fuller Form of Name
$d – Birth and/or Death Date
$c – Titles and Other Words (Professions) Associated with a Name
368 - Other Attributes of Person or Corporate Body
370 - Associated Place (RDA 9.8-9.11)
371 - Address (RDA 9.12)
372 – Field of Activity (RDA 9.15)
373 – Associated Group (RDA 9.13: Affiliation)
374 – Profession or Occupation (RDA 9.16)
375 - Gender (RDA 9.7)
377 - Language (RDA 9.14)
378 – Fuller Form of Name (RDA 9.5)
400 - See from Tracing-Personal Name
510 - Related Corporate Body
678 - Biographical or Historical Data (RDA 9.17)
Corporate Names
Sources to Consult
Before You Begin
MARC Fields
110 - Corporate Name
Places Associated with the Corporate Body
Associated Institution
Names Containing the Word "Services"
111- Meeting Names
368 - Other Attributes of Corporate Body, $a Type of Corporate Body
370 - Associated Place
372 - Field of Activity
373 - Associated Group (11.5)
410/411 - See from Tracing
Initialism or Acronyms in Capital Letters
Variants for Names Containing Ampersands
410 - See from Tracing - Corporate Name
Variant Names Entered Subordinately
Place Names As Jurisdictions vs. Locations
Variant Names Entered Directly
Variants for Names Containing the Term “Inc.” or “Incorporated”
411 - See from Tracing - Meeting Name
Additional Identifying Element(s) for Initialisms/Acronyms in Variants for Meeting Names
510/511 – See Also from Tracing
Relationships and Relationship Designators
510 - See Also from Tracing - Corporate Name
Hierarchical Superior Relationship
667 - Nonpublic Gen Note
678 - Biographical or Historical Data (11.11)
Works and Expressions
046 – Special Coded Dates (RDA 6.4 and 6.10)
130 – Authorized Access Point
336 – Content Type (RDA 6.9)
370 – Associated Place (RDA 6.5)
377 – Associated Language (RDA 6.11)
380 – Form of Work (RDA 6.3)
410/430 – Variant Authorized Access Points
667 – Nonpublic General Note
670 – Source Data Found
043 - Geographic Area Code
451 - See From Tracing
670 - Source Data Found
781 - Subdivision Linking Entry-Geographic Subdivision
General Policies
Hybrid Records in RDA NARs
When to Recode an Existing NAR to RDA
How to Recode an Existing NAR from AACR2 to RDA
Field Specific Guidelines
5XX - See Also from Tracings
Personal Names
100 – Authorized Access Point
$q - Fuller Form of Name
400 – See from Tracing-Personal Name
678 – Biographical or Historical Data (RDA 9.17)
Corporate Bodies
Auth Status - 008/33
110 - Corporate Name
111 – Meeting Name
410/411 – Variant Name
5XX – See Also from Tracings
670 - Source Data Found
043 - Geographic Area Code
451 - See from Tracing
670 – Source Data Found
781 - Subdivision Linking Entry-Geographic Subdivision
Subject Cataloging
General Policies
LC Subject Headings
NASA Thesaurus Terms As Subject Headings
MESH, NAL, and Other Non-LC Subject Headings
LC Genre/Form Terms for Library and Archival Materials
Adding General LCGFT to Bibliographic Records
Background Resources for LCGFT
Adding LCGFT to Cartographic Records
Adding LCGFT to Audiovisual Records
Subject Heading Proposals, Background, and Tips
Tips and Instructions
Internet Research
Subject Headings Manual
Searching Minaret
Add'l Minaret (Class Web) Tips
Scope Notes
Use of the Dictionary
Use of Wikipedia
Use of LSCH As a Thesaurus
Class Web or Minaret
SACO Resources
Subject Headings Manual
Print Resources
Resources for Geographic Proposals
Geographic Print Resources
Examples of GPO Subject Proposals
Subject Heading Proposals, Workflow
Submitting SACO Proposals for Internal Review
Producing Associated Bib Records; Exporting Subject Authority Records
Submitting SACO Proposals to the Library of Congress
Updating Aleph Authority File
Name vs Subject Authority File
Name Headings As Subjects
Special Topics, Materials, Subdivisions, Etc.
Environmental Impact Statements
Legal Topics
Other Metadata Schemes
Dublin Core
Initialisms and Acronyms
List of Major Changes to the Cataloging Guidelines

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