Bibliographic Cataloging: Audiovisual Resources

Use this section in conjunction with the following sources:

  • RDA and Moving Images presentation by Kelley McGrath Maxwell’s Handbook for RDA: Explaining and Illustrating RDA: Resource and Access using MARC 21 / Robert L. Maxwell. Chicago: American Library Association, 2013.
  • Cataloging Tools and Training Documents Online Audiovisual Catalogers (OLAC)
  • Best Practices for Cataloging Streaming Media OLAC. Although it was written prior to RDA’s implementation, OLAC’s Best Practices for Cataloging Streaming Media remains an outstanding reference for cataloging video and sound recordings.

The emphasis of this section is primarily on visual resources because they are the more frequently encountered resource type in government publications.

Scope of the Format Visual Resources

Visual resources encompass still and moving images in digital and analog formats. Cf. OCLC/MARC input standards for codes “g” and “k,” and ignore the characterizations regarding “projectable” or “non-projectable” statuses.

Definitions of Types of Visual Resources

Video: Media used to store moving or still images, designed for use with a playback device such as a videocassette player or DVD player. Includes media used to store digitally encoded as well as analog images.

Still Image: Content expressed through line, shape, shading, etc., intended to be perceived visually in two dimensions. Includes drawings, paintings, diagrams, photographic images (stills), etc. See also entries in RDA Glossary for specific types of the above classes of resources, e.g., Cartographic Image, Poster.

The source of these definitions is the RDA Glossary.

Bibliographic Treatment in the CGP

Generally, visual and audio-visual resources that are cataloged for inclusion in the CGP are analyzed, that is, each work is cataloged individually; however, GPO has begun to catalog entire collections as Federal agencies increasingly build and publish large online collections of thematically-related visual resources.

Examples of collections being treated both analytically and collectively are below.

Analytics of Videos

TitleClass Number
USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service videos A 110.27:
Larkin Street Stories, Episodes 1-3 [static] HE 20.402:L 32/*
NIH Senior Health videos HE 20.3076:
CDC-TV HE 20.7056:
NIOSH videos HE 20.7114/3:
Accident Animations TD 1.135:

Collections of Videos

TitleClass Number
Aquaculture video gallery C 55.356:
Stories of hope and recovery [static] HE 20.402:SU 8
Health Topics Videos HE 20.3228:
Thomas. House committee live streams LC 1.54/2-2:
National Parks of New York Harbor I 29.159:

Typically, digital video collections comprise updating Web sites and thus are cataloged as integrating resources; however, if the cataloger encounters a static collection that will not be analyzed, then treatment as a monographic collection should also be considered. Monograph collections of videos above are marked “[static].”

Analytics of Still Images

TitleClass Number
A lot can happen when you eat your colors A 98.16:C 71
Photo series for quantifying natural fuels A 13.88:PNW-GTR-878
The federal resource you can trust: brought to you by the Office on Women's Health HE 20.41/2:N 21

Collections of Still Images

TitleClass Number
Animal science image gallery A 17.37:
NRCS photo gallery A 57.93:
ARS Image Gallery A 77.737:
NOAA photo library C 55.202:
NOAA Fisheries image gallery C 55.355:

MARC Fields for Visual Resources


It is not uncommon for still images and occasionally videos (especially clips), to lack a title proper. In this case, the cataloger should supply a title, for which an example is:

245 00 [Photographs of children awaiting transplantation surgery]. [CGP 910449]

300- Physical Description

For posters that are purely or primarily textual in content, the term broadside may be used in physical description; otherwise the term “poster” is used.

300 ǂa 1 poster : ǂb color ; ǂc 61 x 91 cm

300 ǂa 1 online resource (1 poster) : ǂb color

Typical RDA treatments for analyzed videorecordings are:

300 1 online resource (1 video file, 6 min., 21 sec.) : ǂb Flash Video, sound, color [CGP 886398]

300 1 online resource (1 streaming and downloadable video file (1 min., 39 sec.)) : ǂb WMV file, sound, color [CGP 886009]

However, when there exists a need to indicate multiple file formats and other file characteristics, then the videorecording’s Physical Description field is supplemented by a General Note (MARC 500) and/or, when possible, an elaborated Contents Note (MARC 505), per the sets of complementary fields below:

300 1 online resource (1 video file (9 min., 08 sec.)) : |b sound, color

500 Video file available in both streaming (9 min., 08 sec., SWF file, sound, color) and downloadable (9 min., 08 sec., WMV and MP4 files, sound, color) formats. Downloadable WMV files available in small, medium, and high resolutions; downloadable MP4 file available in medium resolution. [CGP 905123]

300 1 online resource

500 Video files available in both streaming (37 min., 38 sec., SWF file, sd., col.) and downloadable (37 min., 38 sec., FLV, sd., col.) formats. and

505 0_ The Terry Wise story (13 min., 1 sec.) -- Video guide for suicide attempt survivors story sampler (2 min., 29 sec.) -- The David Lilley Story (10 min., 54 sec.) -- The Jordan Burnham story (11 min., 14 sec.). [CGP 881454]

655- Genre/Form Terms

GPO local policy is to apply Library of Congress Genre-Form Terms (LCGFT) to audio-visual resources, cartographic materials, and Congressional publications.

Recommended ways to search for LCGFTs are to use either:

  • Classification Web: See link from the main menu labeled Search Genre/Form Terms
  • Moving Image Genre-Form Terms / compiled by Scott M. Dutkiewicz, when applicable.

Because none of the LCGFT sources cited herein present a comprehensive hierarchical list for a given facet, then consider searching on a truncated term, e.g., video* or sound*.

After you have selected appropriate term(s), code them in MARC as 655 _7 |a [term] |2 lcgft.

LCGFTs applied for audio-visual resources cataloged by GPO thus far include:

655 _7 |a Internet videos. |2 lcgft

655 _7 |a Video recordings. |2 lcgft *

655 _7 |a Video recordings for the hearing impaired. |2 lcgft

655 _7 |a Sponsored films. |2 lcgft

655 _7 |a Public service announcements (Motion pictures) |2 lcgft

655 _7 |a Documentary films. |2 lcgft

655 _7 |a Educational films. |2 lcgft

655 _7 |a Podcasts. |2 lcgft

655 _7 |a Sound recordings. |2 lcgft *

655 _7 |a Radio public service announcements. |2 lcgft

655 _7 |a Legislative materials. |2 lcgft

* Apply to collections per instructions in LCGFT thesaurus.


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GPO Cataloging Guidelines

Cataloging/Metadata Policy-making Process
Cataloging Policy and Documentation Committee (CPDC)
GPO Cataloging Guidelines Review and Revision
GPO Cataloging Guidelines: Organization and Structure
List of Standards
Other Metadata Schemes
Cooperative Associations
Bibliographic Cataloging
Authoritative Status of the Catalog of U.S. Government Publications
GPO Records in OCLC and Record Maintenance
What LSCM Catalogs
Cataloging/Metadata Encoding Levels Policies
1.0 Purpose
2.0 Background and Related Documents
3.0 Guidelines and Standards Consulted
4.0 Coordination with Collection Development Procedures
5.0 General Principles
5.1 General Cataloging/Metadata Workflows - Individual Records
5.2 Project and Retrospective Cataloging
5.3 Batch Processing of Record Sets
5.4 Categories of Federal Information Products
5.5 922 Codes
6.0 Cataloging Levels Chart
Treatment Decisions for Collections and Analytics
Factors to Consider for the Treatment Decision
Separate Record Policy
Original Cataloging
Copy Cataloging
Adapting PCC Pre-RDA Records
Adapting Non-PCC Pre-RDA Records
Authenticating Non-PCC Pre-RDA Records as PCC
Replacing and Exporting Records
Cataloging Non-distributed Formats (for C&I)
GPO Sales Program Information
Authority Records
General MARC Field Policies
Formats, Modes of Issuance, Etc.
Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PCC) Policy on ISBD Punctuation
Fixed Fields
ELvl - Encoding Level
Variable Fields
037 - Source of Acquisition
040 - Cataloging Source
050 - LC Call Number
060 - NLM Call Number
070 - NAL Call Number
082 - Dewey Decimal Classification Number
100/700 – Personal Name Access Points
100 - Principal Creator – Personal Name
110/111 - Principal Creator - Corporate/Meeting Name
130/240 - Unique Title for Work or Expression
130 - Unique Title for Work or Expression - No Principal Creator Present
240 - Unique Title for Work or Expression - Principal Creator Present
245 - Title Statement and 246 - Varying Form of Title
245 $c - SOR
246 - Varying Form of Title
250 - Edition Statement
264 - Production, Publication
GPO Sales Statement
300 - Physical Description
336 - Content, 337 - , 338 -
490 - Series Statement Field
500, 588 - Title Source, Source of Description Notes
500 - General Note
536 - Funding Info Note
546 - Language Note
6XX - Subject Access Fields
600 - Personal Name Subject
700 - Personal Name Associated with a Work
710/711 - Corporate/Meeting Name Associated with a Work
76X to 78X - Linking Entries
776 - Additional Physical Form Entry
856 – Electronic Location and Access – Historic URLs
074 GPO Item Number
Item Number Corrections
086 SuDoc Number
Sources to Consult
Background and General Instructions
Serials and Integrating Resources
Related Chapters/Sections
Fixed Fields
DtSt: Type of Date/Publication Status
Variable Fields
020 – ISBN
037 – Source of Acquisition
088 - Report Numbers
Types of Numbers NOT Recorded in the 088 Field
Mail Stop and Routing Codes
245 ǂc - Statement of Responsibility
250 - Edition Statement
300 - Physical Description
ǂa – Extent, Complicated or Irregular Paging
ǂa – Multipart Monographs
ǂa – Sheets
500 - General Note
500 – Title Source Note
Report Numbers
Sales Information Notes
Shipping List Notes
Multipart Monographs
505 - Formatted Contents Note
520 - Summary, etc.
536 - Funding Information Note
588 - Source of Description Note
Single-part Online Monographs Examples
Multipart Monographs Examples
Related Works and Expressions
Related Chapters/Sections
Related Resources
Related Works and Expressions - Overview
Frequently Revised Monographs
Language Editions and Translations
Language editions
Parallel text edition
Analytical Access Point(s)
NEPA Documents
Revised Editions
Definition / Context
Precataloging Decision-making
Logistical Note for Bibliographic File Maintenance for Multiple Editions
Detailed Instructions and Examples for Revised Editions
New Expression – Revision and earlier edition share all common authorized access point elements
New Expression – Revision with different title proper
New Expression – Revision’s authorized access point constructed according to a different descriptive convention
New Work – Revised edition with a new primary author
New Work – Revised editions with the same title proper and primary author (or editor) and new content
Ambiguous Status – Appearance of additional authors
Summary included within resource being cataloged
Summary separate from resource being cataloged
Unspecified Relationships and MARC 787
Current RDA Policies and MARC Fields (February 2015- )
MARC Fields
Overview of Previous Microfiche Policies
Re-Cataloging Microfiche
Congressional Publications
Mode of Issuance - Hearings
Encoding Level and PCC Authentication
050 - Library of Congress Call Number
086 - Superintendent of Docs Classification Number
088 - Report Number (House Hearings)
Serial Numbers with Committee Designations
Serial Numbers without Committee Designations
Serial Numbers without Any Designations
1XX - Principal Creator
Presidential Materials
Other Agencies
Senate Treaty Documents
Joint Hearings
Committees or Subcommittees
Individual Authors
No Committees, Subcommittees, or Individual Authors
Other Types of Publications
Joint Committee on Taxation
130/240 - Unique Title for Work
245 - Title Statement
245 ǂa – Title Statement
245 ǂb – Remainder of Title
246 - Varying Form of Title
264 - Production, Publication, Distribution, Manufacture, and Copyright Notice
300 ǂb – Other Physical Details
500 - Serial Number Note
500 Shipping List Note
504 - Bibliography, etc. Note
505 - Formatted Contents Note
Star Prints
050 - Library of Congress Call Number
086 - SuDoc Number
250 - Edition Statement
500 - General Note
086 - SuDoc Number
300 - Accompanying Material
500 - General Note
856 - PURL
086 - SuDoc Number
300 ǂe – Accompanying Material
500 - General Note
856 - PURL
Technical Reports
Identification of Technical Reports
Monograph or Serial
Sources of Information
Cataloging Instructions
Fixed Fields
Public and Private Laws
Public Laws
Private Laws
074 - Item Number
086 - SuDoc Number
490 and 830 - Series
546 and 041- Language
Senate Treaty Document Series (Y 1.1/4:)
Cartographic Materials
Background and Sources Consulted
Brochures and Visitor Guides Treated as Maps
BLM Surface/Mineral Management Maps
Serial Treatment
Encoding Level
086 - SuDoc Number
1XX - Principal Creator
130/240 - Unique Title for Work
245 - Title Statement
255 - Cartographic Math Data
300 - Physical Description
500 - Notes
655 - Genre Term
Audiovisual Resources
Scope of the Format Visual Resources
Definitions of Types of Visual Resources
Bibliographic Treatment in the CGP
Analytics of Videos
Collections of Videos
Analytics of Still Images
Collections of Still Images
MARC Fields for Visual Resources
300 - Physical Description
655 - Genre/Form Terms
Continuing Resources
Selective Registration for ISSN Assignments
GPO’s automated submission of continuing resources for ISSN assignments
GPO’s selective registration of continuing resources for ISSN assignments
Inclusion criteria
Exclusion criteria
Sources to Consult
Policies, Procedures, Practices
Definition of Serial
Monograph vs. Serial and Frequency of Issuance
When Mode of Issuance Is Ambiguous
Replacement of Monograph Records with a Serial Record
Ceased Serials Cataloged for the First Time GPO
Numbering–Exceptions to RDA Principle of Transcription
Notification of Cataloging Updates via WebTech Notes
Notification of OAM for Serials Harvesting
Updating Collections of Serials
MARC Fields
Leader /17 (Encoding Lvl) & 042
010 - LC Control Number
022 - ISSN
050 – LC Call Number
060 – NLM Call Number
070 – NAL Call Number
074 - Item Number
082 - Dewey Decimal Classification Number
086 - SuDoc Number
246- Varying Form of Title
264 - Production, Publication
300 - Physical Description (300|a )
362, 588, and Any Field Where Designation Is Represented
500 - Distribution Note
515 - Numbering Peculiarities
538 - System Details Note
588 - DBO/Source of Title Proper Note
Language for “Description Based on” Note
Print Version Record Used As Basis of Description for Online Version
76X--78X– Linking Entry Fields
776 – Additional Physical Form
Cessation of print version, continuation online version
Cessation of serial due to format and title change
Microform serials and GPO practices for linkages
Former, discontinued practice for linking microform serials to other manifestations
Current practice for linking microform serials to other manifestations
Other Considerations for Linking Entry Fields
Parallel formats
Works linked but not described in bibliographic records
856 – Electronic Location & Access
Single- vs. Separate-Record Approach and PURLs
Appendix A: Bibliographic File Maintenance: Deletion of Records from the CONSER Database
Appendix B: Where to Find Certain CONSER Procedures
Integrating Resources
General MARC Field Policies
086 - SuDoc Number
130 - Authorized Access Point for Work
245 - Title
Other Title Information ($b)
Statement of Responsibility ($c)
300 - Physical Description
5XX - Notes
Order of 5xx Notes
588 - DBO/Source of title proper note
580/760-787 - Linking Relationships
FDLP Web Archive Resources
Computer Files
Procedures to Convert Type "M" to Type "A" Records
Disposition of eBooks on CD-ROM
MARC Fields
020 – International Standard Book Number
347 – Digital file characteristics
856 – Electronic location and access
New records, or non-GPO adapted records
Existing GPO records
955 – Local GPO notes
New record, acquired directly by cataloger
New record, acquired by acquisitions team
Existing GPO record, updated to include eBook
Non-Distributed eBooks
074 – Item number
500 – General note on distribution
588 – Description Based on Note
856 – Electronic location and access
OCLC Holdings
Export to Aleph
Resources to Consult
Name Authorities
Instructions to Consult
Policy Overview
Personal Names
Congressional Publications
Other Publications
Corporate/Conference Names
Variant Names
Conference Authority Records
Programs and Projects
Corporate Names for Parks, Forests, Preserves, etc.
Works and Expressions
Multipart (Collective) Titles
Series-Like Phrases
Places (Jurisdictional Geographic Names)
General Procedures
Optional Fields
Research in OCLC
How Much Research Should Be Performed . . . ?
When to Consult Additional Sources
Tips for Contacting Agencies
General Field Specific Guidelines
043 - Geographic Area Code
1xx and 4xx
4XX - See from Tracing
5XX - See Also from Tracing
670 - Source Data Found
678 - Biographical or Historical Data
781 - Subdivision Linking Entry - Geographic Subdivision
General Policies
Hybrid Records in RDA Name Authority Records
When to Recode an Existing NAR to RDA
How to Recode an Existing NAR from AACR2 to RDA
Field Specific Guidelines
$u and $v in the 046 and 3XX Optional Fields
Source of Information: 670 vs. $v in the 046 and 3XX Optional Fields
046 – Special Coded Dates
$2 – Source of Term
$s (start date or period) $t (end date or period)
336 - Content Type
368 - Other Attributes of Person or Corporate Body
370 - Associated Place
371 – Address
372 – Field of Activity
373 – Association Group
377 – Associated Language
4XX – See from Tracing
5XX – See Also from Tracings
670 – Source Data Found
678 – Biographical or Historical Data
Personal Names
Procedure for ECIP
Procedure for CRS Reports
General Instructions
046 – Special Coded Dates (RDA 9.3)
$s and $t in the 046 and 3XX Optional Fields
100 – Authorized Access Point
$q – Fuller Form of Name
$d – Birth and/or Death Date
$c – Titles and Other Words (Professions) Associated with a Name
368 - Other Attributes of Person or Corporate Body
370 - Associated Place (RDA 9.8-9.11)
371 - Address (RDA 9.12)
372 – Field of Activity (RDA 9.15)
373 – Associated Group (RDA 9.13: Affiliation)
374 – Profession or Occupation (RDA 9.16)
375 - Gender (RDA 9.7)
377 - Language (RDA 9.14)
378 – Fuller Form of Name (RDA 9.5)
400 - See from Tracing-Personal Name
510 - Related Corporate Body
678 - Biographical or Historical Data (RDA 9.17)
Corporate Names
Sources to Consult
Before You Begin
MARC Fields
110 - Corporate Name
Places Associated with the Corporate Body
Associated Institution
Names Containing the Word "Services"
678 - Biographical or Historical Data (11.11)
111- Meeting Names
368 - Other Attributes of Corporate Body, $a Type of Corporate Body
370 - Associated Place
372 - Field of Activity
373 - Associated Group (11.5)
410/411 - See from Tracing
Initialism or Acronyms in Capital Letters
Variants for Names Containing Ampersands
410 - See from Tracing - Corporate Name
Variant Names Entered Subordinately
Place Names As Jurisdictions vs. Locations
Variant Names Entered Directly
Variants for Names Containing the Term “Inc.” or “Incorporated”
411 - See from Tracing - Meeting Name
Additional Identifying Element(s) for Initialisms/Acronyms in Variants for Meeting Names
510/511 – See Also from Tracing
Relationships and Relationship Designators
510 - See Also from Tracing - Corporate Name
Hierarchical Superior Relationship
667 - Nonpublic Gen Note
Works and Expressions
046 – Special Coded Dates (RDA 6.4 and 6.10)
130 – Authorized Access Point
336 – Content Type (RDA 6.9)
370 – Associated Place (RDA 6.5)
377 – Associated Language (RDA 6.11)
380 – Form of Work (RDA 6.3)
410/430 – Variant Authorized Access Points
667 – Nonpublic General Note
670 – Source Data Found
043 - Geographic Area Code
451 - See From Tracing
670 - Source Data Found
781 - Subdivision Linking Entry-Geographic Subdivision
General Policies
Hybrid Records in RDA NARs
When to Recode an Existing NAR to RDA
How to Recode an Existing NAR from AACR2 to RDA
Field Specific Guidelines
5XX - See Also from Tracings
Personal Names
100 – Authorized Access Point
$q - Fuller Form of Name
400 – See from Tracing-Personal Name
678 – Biographical or Historical Data (RDA 9.17)
Corporate Bodies
Auth Status - 008/33
110 - Corporate Name
111 – Meeting Name
410/411 – Variant Name
5XX – See Also from Tracings
670 - Source Data Found
043 - Geographic Area Code
451 - See from Tracing
670 – Source Data Found
781 - Subdivision Linking Entry-Geographic Subdivision
Subject Cataloging
General Policies
LC Subject Headings
NASA Thesaurus Terms As Subject Headings
MESH, NAL, and Other Non-LC Subject Headings
LC Genre/Form Terms for Library and Archival Materials
Adding General LCGFT to Bibliographic Records
Background Resources for LCGFT
Adding LCGFT to Cartographic Records
Adding LCGFT to Audiovisual Records
Subject Heading Proposals, Background, and Tips
Tips and Instructions
Internet Research
Subject Headings Manual
Searching Minaret
Add'l Minaret (Class Web) Tips
Scope Notes
Use of the Dictionary
Use of Wikipedia
Use of LSCH As a Thesaurus
Class Web or Minaret
SACO Resources
Subject Headings Manual
Print Resources
Resources for Geographic Proposals
Geographic Print Resources
Examples of GPO Subject Proposals
Subject Heading Proposals, Workflow
Submitting SACO Proposals for Internal Review
Producing Associated Bib Records; Exporting Subject Authority Records
Submitting SACO Proposals to the Library of Congress
Updating Aleph Authority File
Name vs Subject Authority File
Name Headings As Subjects
Special Topics, Materials, Subdivisions, Etc.
Environmental Impact Statements
Legal Topics
Other Metadata Schemes
Dublin Core
Initialisms and Acronyms
List of Major Changes to the Cataloging Guidelines

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